Gymnura altavela, Spiny butterfly ray : fisheries, gamefish

Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)

Spiny butterfly ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura altavela   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura altavela (Spiny butterfly ray)
Gymnura altavela
Picture by Flescher, D.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); kisaran kedalaman 5 - 100 m (Ref. 6808).   Subtropical; 47°N - 39°S, 98°W - 42°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA, Brazil (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ambriz, Angola (including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary islands).

Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 400 cm WD jantan/; (Ref. 3709); common length : 200 cm WD jantan/; (Ref. 3709); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4699)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Tail short armed with spine. Disk very broad. Very low dorsal and ventral finfolds on tail (Ref. 7251). Disk dark brown to grayish, lower surface of disc and of pelvic fins white, brownish, rosy or rusty cast. Tail white or rosy white below (Ref. 6902).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Maximum length measured is 140 cm (Ref. 5377). Occurs over sand and mud. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and plankton. Ovoviviparous, gestation lasting about 6 months with 4 to 7 embryos produced per female (Ref. 6676).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : McEachran, John | mitra

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)

  Rentan, lihat daftar merah IUCN (VU) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Ikan buruan: ya
FAO - Perikanan: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
BRUVS
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Nutrients
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Perikanan: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.9 - 27.8, mean 23.6 °C (based on 860 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00631 - 0.02292), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (Fec 4-7).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 21.4 [3.5, 73.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.819 [0.231, 2.455] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.6 [18.6, 24.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.523 [0.163, 1.570] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [7.3, 113.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.55 [1.92, 21.46] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.46 [0.22, 1.02] mg/100g (wet weight);