Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Pelagic stingray
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Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic stingray
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Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray)
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Male picture by Mollet, H.F.

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
Etymology: Pteroplatytrygon: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek,platys = flat + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335);  violacea: From the Latin 'viola' meaning violet.  More on author: Bonaparte.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; djupintervall 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209).   Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209)

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228).

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 96.0 cm WD hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 48844); common length : 80.0 cm WD hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 9254)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048). Total length 110 TL (80 cm WD) (Ref. 9254).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). With 2 (Ref.58048) to 9 young born at 15-25 cm WD (Ref. 26346); after a gestation period of 4 months (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Medarbetare

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 9254)





Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
BRUVS
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationella databaser | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12 - 28.6, mean 24.8 °C (based on 5148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00282 - 0.01623), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 32.3 [4.4, 114.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.39, 3.65] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.4 [19.7, 25.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.133, 0.976] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.7 [4.9, 47.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.8 [6.8, 47.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.556 [0.266, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight);