Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Pelagic stingray
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Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic stingray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray)
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Male picture by Mollet, H.F.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
Etymology: Pteroplatytrygon: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek,platys = flat + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335);  violacea: From the Latin 'viola' meaning violet.  More on author: Bonaparte.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; tiefenbereich 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209).   Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 96.0 cm WD Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 48844); common length : 80.0 cm WD Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 9254)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048). Total length 110 TL (80 cm WD) (Ref. 9254).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). With 2 (Ref.58048) to 9 young born at 15-25 cm WD (Ref. 26346); after a gestation period of 4 months (Ref.58048).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Partner

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Venomous (Ref. 9254)





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12 - 28.6, mean 24.8 °C (based on 5148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00282 - 0.01623), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  sehr niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert mehr als 14 Jahre. (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year)).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 32.3 [4.4, 114.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.39, 3.65] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.4 [19.7, 25.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.133, 0.976] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.7 [4.9, 47.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.8 [6.8, 47.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.556 [0.266, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight);