Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Pelagic stingray
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Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic stingray
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | صور قوقل
Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray)
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Male picture by Mollet, H.F.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

أشلاق (القروش و الشفانين) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
Etymology: Pteroplatytrygon: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek,platys = flat + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335);  violacea: From the Latin 'viola' meaning violet.  More on author: Bonaparte.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; نطاق العمق 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209).   Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209)

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 96.0 cm WD ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 48844); common length : 80.0 cm WD ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 9254)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048). Total length 110 TL (80 cm WD) (Ref. 9254).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). With 2 (Ref.58048) to 9 young born at 15-25 cm WD (Ref. 26346); after a gestation period of 4 months (Ref.58048).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم : McEachran, John | المتعاونين

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Venomous (Ref. 9254)

استخدامات بشرية

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

مزيد من المعلومات

مناطق الفاو
النظام البيئي
عناصر الغذاء
استهلاك الأغذية
الأسماء الشائعة
علم السميات البيئية
وضع البيض
تجمعات وضع البيض
تطور البيضة
العمر/ الحجم
الطول- الترددات
قياسات المظهر الخارجي
الوصف الخارجي
حركة انتقال اليرقات
الأستزراع المائي
ملف الأستزراع المائي
تواتر الأليل
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
التسمم باكل السمك
نوع السباحة
منطقة الخياشيم
عظمة الأذن


تقارير خاصة

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12 - 28.6, mean 24.8 °C (based on 5148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00282 - 0.01623), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.54 se; based on food items.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  منخفظ جدا, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع أكثر من 14 سنة (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year)).
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 32.3 [4.4, 114.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.39, 3.65] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.4 [19.7, 25.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.133, 0.976] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.7 [4.9, 47.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.8 [6.8, 47.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.556 [0.266, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight);