Beringraja stellulata, Starry skate

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Beringraja stellulata (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)

Starry skate
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Beringraja stellulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Beringraja stellulata
Picture by Murch, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Beringraja: Named for the Bering Sea, though to be the origin of the two species in this genus.;  stellulata: From the Latin stellula meaning small star - scales (Ref. 6885)  More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 18 - 982 m (Ref. 112456), usually 70 - 150 m (Ref. 112456).   溫帶; 4°C - 12°C (Ref. 112456); 51°N - 30°N, 129°W - 115°W (Ref. 112456)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northeast Pacific: northern California (USA) to Baja California (Mexico).
北太平洋: 白令海到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞北部。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2850)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. A row of strong, sharp spines along the mid-dorsal line from a point behind the eyes by less than the interorbital width to the first dorsal fin and continued beyond it with a single spine between the two dorsal fins; large spines on the shoulder girdle; a row of small spines on the inner edge of the orbit; a cluster of moderate spines along the edge of the pectoral fin from its tip to the snout, large spines in males (Ref. 6885). Dorsal fins small and well back on tail; caudal fin very small; anal fin absent; pectorals broad, attached to snout and incorporated with body; pelvic fins large and deeply notched (Ref. 6885). A horizontal fleshy ridge from either side of ventral surface of tail, more prominent posteriorly (Ref. 6885). Grayish brown, numerous dark spots of various sizes scattered on body, a weakly marked eye spot frequently present at base of pectoral fins (Ref. 6885).
一排硬且利的棘沿着来自点的背部中央线哪一眼睛后面被少于对第一背鳍的眼间骨宽度而且继续超过它有一条硬棘在两个背鳍之间; 在肩肢带骨上的大的棘; 在眼窝的内缘上的一列小的棘; 一簇中等的棘沿着胸鳍的边缘从它的顶端到吻部, 雄性的大棘.(参考文献 6885) 背鳍小的而且在尾部正后方; 尾鳍非常小的; 没有臀鳍; 胸鳍宽的, 依附于吻而且和身体合并; 腹鳍大的与凹槽深的.(参考文献 6885) 来自尾部腹面的任一侧边的一个水平的肉质脊, 较突出的在后部地.(参考文献 6885) 浅灰褐色又很多的不同大小的深色斑点散布在身体上, 一个不明显的眼斑时常出现在胸鳍基底鳍。 (参考文献 6885)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

A demersal species, commonly found inshore on continental shelf; also found on continental slope. Mainly feeds on small bony fishes, cephalopods and shrimps (Ref. 114953). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 7.1-7.8 cm long and 5.5-7.0 cm wide (Ref. 41300). Males reaches maturity at ca. 67 cm TL, females at ca. 68 cm TL; young hatch at 12-16 cm TL (Ref. 114953).

卵生的。 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘是 7.1-7.8 公分长与 5.5-7.0 公分宽的.(参考文献 41300)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).北太平洋: 白令海到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞北部。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 24 March 2014

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 3.5 - 8.3, mean 5.7 °C (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 18.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .