Beringraja stellulata, Starry skate

Beringraja stellulata (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)

Starry skate
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Beringraja stellulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Beringraja stellulata
Picture by Murch, A.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) 鰩目 (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) 鰩科 (Skates)
Etymology: Beringraja: Named for the Bering Sea, though to be the origin of the two species in this genus.;  stellulata: From the Latin stellula meaning small star - scales (Ref. 6885)  More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 深度上下限 18 - 982 m (Ref. 112456), usually 70 - 150 m (Ref. 112456).   溫帶; 4°C - 12°C (Ref. 112456); 51°N - 30°N, 129°W - 115°W (Ref. 112456)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Northeast Pacific: northern California (USA) to Baja California (Mexico).
北太平洋: 白令海到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞北部。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2850)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. A row of strong, sharp spines along the mid-dorsal line from a point behind the eyes by less than the interorbital width to the first dorsal fin and continued beyond it with a single spine between the two dorsal fins; large spines on the shoulder girdle; a row of small spines on the inner edge of the orbit; a cluster of moderate spines along the edge of the pectoral fin from its tip to the snout, large spines in males (Ref. 6885). Dorsal fins small and well back on tail; caudal fin very small; anal fin absent; pectorals broad, attached to snout and incorporated with body; pelvic fins large and deeply notched (Ref. 6885). A horizontal fleshy ridge from either side of ventral surface of tail, more prominent posteriorly (Ref. 6885). Grayish brown, numerous dark spots of various sizes scattered on body, a weakly marked eye spot frequently present at base of pectoral fins (Ref. 6885).
一排硬且利的棘沿著來自點的背部中央線哪一眼睛後面被少於對第一背鰭的眼間骨寬度而且繼續超過它有一條硬棘在兩個背鰭之間; 在肩肢帶骨上的大的棘; 在眼窩的內緣上的一列小的棘; 一簇中等的棘沿著胸鰭的邊緣從它的頂端到吻部, 雄性的大棘.(參考文獻 6885) 背鰭小的而且在尾部正後方; 尾鰭非常小的; 沒有臀鰭; 胸鰭寬的, 依附於吻而且和身體合併; 腹鰭大的與凹槽深的.(參考文獻 6885) 來自尾部腹面的任一側邊的一個水平的肉質脊, 較突出的在後部地.(參考文獻 6885) 淺灰褐色又很多的不同大小的深色斑點散佈在身體上, 一個不明顯的眼斑時常出現在胸鰭基底鰭。 (參考文獻 6885)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A demersal species, commonly found inshore on continental shelf; also found on continental slope. Mainly feeds on small bony fishes, cephalopods and shrimps (Ref. 114953). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 7.1-7.8 cm long and 5.5-7.0 cm wide (Ref. 41300). Males reaches maturity at ca. 67 cm TL, females at ca. 68 cm TL; young hatch at 12-16 cm TL (Ref. 114953).

卵生的。 明顯的成對出現。 幼魚可能傾向跟隨大的個體, 例如他們的母親.(參考文獻 205) 卵為長方形鞘囊具有僵硬的觸角沈積在沙灘或泥灘的角落.(參考文獻 205) 卵鞘是 7.1-7.8 公分長與 5.5-7.0 公分寬的.(參考文獻 41300)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).北太平洋: 白令海到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞北部。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 24 March 2014

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 3.5 - 8.3, mean 5.7 °C (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 18.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .