Ginglymostoma cirratum, Nurse shark : fisheries, aquarium

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Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Nurse shark
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Ginglymostoma cirratum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Ginglymostoma cirratum (Nurse shark)
Ginglymostoma cirratum
Picture by Freitas, R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Orectolobiformes (Carpet sharks) 鬚鯊目 (Carpet sharks) > Ginglymostomatidae (Nurse sharks) 鉸口鯊科 (Nurse sharks)
Etymology: Ginglymostoma: Greek, gynglimos = hinge + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bonnaterre.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 0 - 130 m (Ref. 43278), usually 1 - 35 m (Ref. 40849).   亞熱帶的; 44°N - 35°S, 122°W - 10°E (Ref. 247)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean.
西大西洋: 羅德島州,美國到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海,安地列斯群島。 東大西洋: 維德角到加彭; 偶而被發現於法國。 東太平洋: 加州灣與墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到祕魯。 近親魚種被發現於印度洋。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 230 - 240 cm
Max length : 430 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 96339); common length : 304 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 247); 最大體重: 109.6 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 72467)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0. Moderately long barbels, nasoral grooves present but no perinasal grooves, mouth well in front of eyes, spiracles minute, precaudal tail shorter than head and body, dorsal fins broadly rounded (the first much larger than the second and anal fins), caudal fin moderately long, over 1/4 of total length, yellow-brown to grey-brown in color, with or without small dark spots and obscure dorsal saddle markings (Ref. 247). Head blunt, mouth inferior, pair of conspicuous barbels between nostrils (Ref. 26938).
中等長度的觸鬚 , 鼻溝存在的但是沒有鼻孔緣的凹槽 , 嘴在眼正前方, 呼吸孔細小的, 肛前尾短於頭部與身體, 背鰭寬廣地圓的 (第一個比第二背鰭與臀鰭大很多), 尾鰭中等長度的, 超過全長中的 1/4, 黃褐色到灰褐色顏色, 具有或者沒有小的深色斑點與暗的背部鞍狀斑紋.(參考文獻 247) 頭部鈍的, 嘴下方的, 在鼻孔之間的成對顯著的觸鬚.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on continental and insular shelves. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and sluggish fish, often encountered lying on the bottom (Ref. 9987). Nocturnal, feeding on bottom invertebrates such as spiny lobsters, shrimps, crabs, sea urchins, squids, octopi, snails and bivalves, and fishes like catfishes, mullets, puffers and stingrays. Ovoviviparous with 21 to 28 young in a litter (Ref. 9987, 43278). Kept in captivity for researches. May attack humans if they are molested or stepped upon accidentally. Edible, but mainly valued for its hide, which makes extremely tough and durable leather (Ref. 9987). Common over shallow sand flats, in channels, and around coral reefs; young may be found among prop roots of red mangroves (Ref. 26938).

棲息於大陸棚與島嶼棚了。 一種獨居性 (參考文獻 26340) 與緩動性的魚, 時常見到了棲息於底部。 (參考文獻 9987) 夜行的, 吃底棲無脊椎動物例如棘龍蝦,蝦,螃蟹,海膽,烏賊,章魚,蝸牛與二枚貝 , 與魚例如鯰魚,烏魚,河豚與魟。 卵胎生的具有 21 到 28 幼魚在一胎。 為研究畜養於繁殖場了。 如果他們被干擾或不小心踩到,可能攻擊人類。 可食用的, 但是主要的價值在它的隱藏, 這製造非常強硬而持久的皮革.(參考文獻 9987) 在峽道中,普遍在水淺的沙地淺灘上, 與珊瑚礁的周圍; 幼魚可能在紅色紅樹林的支柱根之中被發現於。 (參考文獻 26938)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Ovoviviparous, with 21 to 28 young in a litter. Development of young in the uterus being sustained by a large supply of yolk. Females give birth in late spring and summer in waters off Florida. During courtship, a pair sometimes a triplet of adults engaged in synchronized parallel swimming. While on it, the male may grab one of the female's pectoral fins with his mouth which induces the female to pivot 90° and roll on her back on the bottom. Then the male inserts a clasper in her vent, and then roll on his back beside the female. Pair may break apart and depart rapidly after copulation or the male may remain motionless on the subtrate as if recovering from the mating bout (Ref. 49562). Not all attempts of males to copulate with a female nurse shark result in successful fertilization, females may employ avoidance by 'pivotting and rolling' to escape from male attention (Ref. 49562). Or females may 'lie on back' and rest motionless and rigidly on the substrate (Ref. 51113, 49562). On the contrary, females send signals of readiness to copulate with males by arching their body toward their male partner and cupping the pelvic fin (Ref. 51126, 49562). Male nurse sharks may mate with many females over several weeks (polygyny) and vice versa (polyandry) (Ref. 49562). Also Ref. 205.西大西洋: 羅德島州,美國到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海,安地列斯群島。 東大西洋: 維德角到加彭; 偶而被發現於法國。 東太平洋: 加州灣與墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到祕魯。 近親魚種被發現於印度洋。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
年龄/大小
成長
長度-重量
長度-長度
長度-頻率
形態測量圖
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稚魚動力學
入添量
豐度
參考文獻
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養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
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Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.3 - 28, mean 25.5 (based on 798 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.8125   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00158 - 0.01100), b=3.08 (2.85 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.14; tmax=25; Fec=21-28).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.