分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(屬, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) 鱸形目 (Cichlids, convict blennies)
(Cichlids) 慈鯛科魚類 (Cichlids)
More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19. 熱帶; 20°C - 25°C (Ref. 1672); 9°N - 2°N, 9°W - 11°E (Ref. 55202)
Africa: coastal lagoons and lower river courses from the Tabou River (Côte d'Ivoire) to the Kribi River (Cameroon), but absent from the area between the Pra River (Ghana) and Benin (Ref. 53405). Also recorded from the lower Ntem, Cameroon (81260).
非洲: 到迦納西南部的海岸低地與潟湖從 Tabou 河 (象牙海岸) 與從貝南到 Kribi 河 (喀麥隆) 東南部.
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.3 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 81260); common length : 17.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大體重: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
背棘 (總數): 15 - 17; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 11. Diagnosis: body rather elevated (body depth 46.9-51.6% SL) (Ref. 53405). Head profile rounded (Ref. 81260). Outer teeth on jaws bicuspid (Ref. 53405), gracile (Ref. 81260) and spatulated (Ref. 53405, 81260). Lower pharyngeal jaw teeth relatively small and narrow near posterior border of bone, forming an almost felt-like covering (Ref. 81260). Micro-gillrakers present; adults (> 150 mm) with a series of dark blotches in the middle of the flanks (sometimes body entirely blackish) (Ref. 53405, 81260). Juveniles with 7-9 large vertical bands (Ref. 53405). Ventral scales with central red spot; 12 or more rakers on lower limb of first gill arch (Ref. 81260).
Live in still or flowing waters in rocky or mud-bottom areas (Ref. 44894). Occur in warm springs and mud-bottomed to sand-bottomed canals (Ref. 5723). Clearly prefers a herbivorous diet, including algae, higher plants and parts of cassava, but also accepts insects and shrimps (along with their eggs) (Ref. 52307). Consume plant matter. Reache sexual maturity at 10-15 centimeters length. Parents prepare nest site on logs, leaves and other debris. Prolific species (Ref. 52307). The eggs (600-3300 per female) are guarded by the parents and hatch in 1-3 days. Larvae need 6-8 additional days to develop before they can swim freely (Ref. 52307). Parental care of the brood continues until the fish are about (1.5 cm, Ref. 52307) 2.5-3.0 centimeters (Ref. 44894). Occurs in mixed groups composed of individuals of varying size/age, along with individuals of other species (Ref. 52307). Pair-bonding, open (Ref. 52307) substrate brooder (Ref. 52307, 81260) with both parents guarding the brood (Ref. 52307). Maximum size was recorded at 39.4 cm TL (Ref. 40637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Produces up to 2000 eggs.非洲: 到迦納西南部的海岸低地與潟湖從 Tabou 河 (象牙海岸) 與從貝南到 Kribi 河 (喀麥隆) 東南部.
Dunz, A.R. and U.K. Schliewen, 2013. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 68(1):64-80. (Ref. 93285)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
漁業: ; 水族館: 商業性
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01413 - 0.01950), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 2.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec = 2,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 198 [102, 367] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.42 [0.87, 2.81] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.3, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.517 [0.245, 1.208] g/100g ; Selenium = 65.7 [35.2, 126.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.8 [3.6, 42.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.81 [1.21, 3.22] mg/100g (wet weight);