Salmo salar, Atlantic salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758

Atlantic salmon
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Salmo salar
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335);  salar: From the Latin 'salio' meaning to leap (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 92381); 深度上下限 0 - 210 m (Ref. 57178), usually 10 - 23 m.   溫帶; 2°C - 9°C (Ref. 36794); 72°N - 37°N, 77°W - 61°E

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North Atlantic Ocean: temperate and arctic zones in northern hemisphere (Ref. 51442). Western Atlantic: Atlantic drainages from northern Quebec, Canada, to Connecticut and New York, USA; inland to Lake Ontario where it is now extirpated (Ref. 86798). Landlocked stocks are present in North America (Ref. 1998). Eastern Atlantic: White and Barents Sea basins through northeastern Europe to the Baltic and North Sea basins, including Iceland (Ref. 59043). Introduced to New Zealand, Chile, southern Argentina (Ref. 59043) and Australia (Ref. 6390). Listed in Appendix III of the Bern Convention (2002) (freshwater only). Listed in Annex II (freshwater only; excluding Finnish population) and V (freshwater only) of the EC Habitats Directive (2007).
大西洋: 在北半球中的溫帶與北極的區域.(參考文獻 51442) 在大西洋西部海洋中在美國從北方的加拿大魁北克到肯乃迪克州分佈於海岸流域。 (參考文獻 5723) 在分佈於流域從波羅的海東大西洋的海洋中說到葡萄牙。 (參考文獻 51442) 陸封的分枝在俄國,芬蘭,瑞典與挪威 (參考文獻 6439) 與北美洲出現。 (參考文獻 1998) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群; 除了在海上之外).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 73.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 7251); 120.0 cm TL (female); common length : 38.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3561); 最大体重: 46.8 kg (Ref. 41037); 最大年龄: 13 年 (Ref. 274)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3 - 4; 背的软条 (总数): 9-15; 臀棘 3-4; 臀鳍软条: 7 - 11; 脊椎骨: 58 - 61. Distinguished from congeners by having the following unique characters: 10-13 scales between end of adipose base and lateral line; 17-24 gill rakers (Ref. 59043); caudal fin deeply forked in individuals smaller than 20 cm SL; hyaline or grey adipose margin; posterior part of vomer toothless (Ref. 59043). Mouth extends only to area below rear of eye and has well developed teeth (Ref. 51442). Vomerine teeth weak (Ref. 7251). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Little scales (Ref. 51442). Juveniles have 8-12 blue-violet spots on the flanks with little red spots in-between (Ref. 51442). Adults at sea are bluish-green dorsally becoming silvery along the sides and white ventrally; with a few black spots but none under lateral line (Ref. 37032, Ref. 51442). Caudal fin usually unspotted and adipose fin not black bordered. During reproduction individuals lose the silvery shine and become dull brown or yellowish. Males may be mottled with red or have large black patches (Refs. 37032, 51442, 88171). Skin becomes thick and leathery. Survivors lose their spawning coloration and are generally dark in colour (Ref. 84357). During the spawning season, males are characterized by elongated hooked jaws that meet at the tips, thicker fins, and slime covering their body. Hook of males dwindle after spawning (Ref. 35388).
纺锤型身体.(参考文献 51442) 嘴只在眼后面之下延伸到区域而且有发展良好的齿。 (参考文献 51442) 犁骨齿弱的.(参考文献 7251) 尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196) 小的鳞片.(参考文献 51442) 成鱼是蓝绿色色彩在咸水中具有一个银色的涂料与一些斑点; 没有在侧线下面的斑点.(参考文献 37032, 参考文献 51442) 在繁殖期间,在淡水中,它失去银色的 guanin 外套而且变成呈绿色或者红褐色具有红色或橘色的色斑, 确定地雄性.(参考文献 37032, 参考文献 51442) 在身体上的少数黑色的斑点, 尾鳍通常无斑点的与脂鳍不是黑色的毗邻。 稚鱼有在侧面上的 8 到 12个蓝色-紫罗兰色的斑点有小的红色斑点中间物。 (参考文献 51442) 也参考文献 3137.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Amphihaline species, spending most of its life in freshwater (Ref. 51442). Occurs in lakes and rocky runs and pools of small to large rivers (Ref. 86798). Some landlocked populations exist. Found in all rivers where temperature rises above 10° C for about 3 months per year and does not exceed 20° C for more than a few weeks in summer (Ref. 59043) (preferred temperatures 4-12°C). Juveniles may live in cold lakes in northern Europe (Ref. 59043). Parr (i.e. juveniles) are territorial and are found in the upper reaches of rivers and streams, in riffle areas with strong current and rough gravel bottoms (Ref. 7471). During winter, parr seek refuge in small spaces or under stones during the day (Refs. 59043, 89461). Young remain in freshwater for 1 to 6 years, then migrate to coastal marine waters or even to open oceans where they remain for 1 to 4 years before returning to freshwater for spawning (Ref. 51442). Adults inhabit cooler waters with strong to moderate flow (Ref. 44894). The Atlantic salmon is reported to live up to 10 years, but most individuals only reach 4-6 years (Ref. 88187). Juveniles feed mainly on aquatic insects, mollusks, crustaceans and fish; adults at sea feed on squids, shrimps, and fish (Ref. 51442). Most populations depend mostly or exclusively on stocking due to degradations of environmental conditions. Fishing pressure on wild stocks has decreased due to intensive farming but other problems have increased. Farmed salmons escape in large numbers and move to any river and hybridize with wild stocks (Ref. 59043). This species may hybridize with trout (Salmo trutta) (Ref. 59043). Diseases of the species include furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida), corynebacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum), enteric red mouth disease (Yersinia ruckeri), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, bacterial kidney disease, fin rot and fungus infections (Ref. 5951). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked, and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, cooked in microwave, and baked (Ref. 9988).

栖息于较冷的水域对中等的水流有强的.(参考文献 44894) Amphihaline 种, 在淡水中度过它大部分的生活期.(参考文献 51442) 幼鱼逗留在淡水 1-6 年以来, 然后回游到海洋而且在回到淡水数年之前为 1 - 4 逗留在那里。 它在大陆盆位于格陵兰西方上的海上长大。 (参考文献 51442) 成鱼然后回到他们的起源的河产卵.(参考文献 51442) 它在产卵之后返回大海,但是许多成鱼已经死。 (参考文献 51442) 活跃的在白天期间。 稚鱼主要捕食水生昆虫,软件动物,甲殼類動物和魚類; 成魚在海洋吃烏賊,蝦與魚.(參考文獻 51442) 成魚在淡水那是接近生殖的階段不進食.(參考文獻 30578, 參考文獻 51442) 成長在淡水中慢在海洋中的時候非常迅速。 鮭魚的生活歷史在鱗片中可能是閱讀從成長區域。 (參考文獻 35388) 一些湖族群是陸封的。 在市場上銷售新鮮的﹐乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻, 與冷凍; 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 在微波煮了, 與燒烤了.(參考文獻 9988) 偏愛冷的溫度。 (參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

At the onset of sexual maturity this species is known to return from the ocean to the river where it was born, and even to its specific natal site (Refs. 7471, 51442). Lacustrine populations move to tributaries (Ref. 59043). Spawning migration into freshwater lasts from June to November. Spawns at 6-10°C (Ref. 89464) in gravel river areas far upstream with moderate to fast-flowing, well-oxygenated waters and a succession of riffles and pools (Refs. 6390, 59043). The female selects a site where the gravel is of the right size and of sufficient depth (0.1 to 0.3 m) (Refs. 7471, 51442) and water depth is around 0.5-3 m (Ref. 35387). The female digs a depression ("redd") by turning on her side and flexing her body up and down, without touching the stones (Ref. 36794). This species spawns in pairs. The male guards and defends the female against other males (Ref. 59043). A female releases between 8,000-25,000 eggs during a spawning season (Ref. 7471, 88187); 500 to 2000 per kg (Ref. 51442). Fertilized eggs sink into the redd and are covered with a layer of gravel (0.1-0.3 m) usually by the male (Refs. 7471, 59043). Females are also observed to cover the eggs. Individual spawning is completed in 2-3 days (Ref. 7471) after a female digging several redds and spawning with several males. Period of spawning lasts for 1-2 weeks. Most males die after spawning, while 10-40% of females may survive and return to the sea in autumn or overwinter in rivers, feed one summer, and migrate again. They may spawn in the year following the first reproduction or may remain at sea for 18 months before returning once more to the river. Of the returning females, about 0.3-6 % spawn a second time and very few spawn a third or fourth time. In short rivers with presumably less exhaustive upstream migration, up to 34% of returning individuals spawn a second time; some individuals may spawn for up to six seasons (Ref. 59043). Eggs hatch in spring, usually after 70-160 days (Ref. 59043). Upon hatching, alevins (i.e. newly-hatched young up to 1 month) are negatively phototactic and move deeper into the gravel (Refs. 58137, 59043). As their yolk sac is absorbed, the fry emerge from the bottom and move to shallow riffles just downstream of their redd (Ref. 59043). Mortality of young individuals during the first months may range from 14-61 % (Ref. 89465). Parr (i.e. juveniles) may remain in freshwater environments for 1-7 years (depending on temperature and feeding conditions) but most stay for 2-3 years. Parr undergo morphological and physiological changes called smoltification which prepares them for life in the sea. At the southern end of their range, many reach a length of 12-15 cm, transform into smolts and are ready for migration in spring of the first year after hatching (Refs. 7471, 51442). At the northern end of the range they may take 5-6 years to reach smolt stage (Ref. 36794). Smolts move towards estuaries, the continental shelf and eventually the open ocean (Ref. 89462). The Atlantic salmon matures between 3-7 years (Ref. 41851). After 1-4 years at sea, it migrates back to the upper reaches of its natal river to spawn (Refs. 59043, 89461). It has an acute sense of smell and it is suggested that it imprints a sequence of odours while inhabiting rivers and during its smolt run. It presumably reverses this sequence to return to its natal site (Ref. 89461). Several studies have shown that smolt runs are strongly correlated to increasing water temperature and water flow during spring (Ref. 89461). There is little evidence of natural spawning by land-locked populations of Atlantic salmon in Australia, and populations are maintained by stocking (Ref. 6390, 26519).大西洋: 在北半球中的溫帶與北極的區域.(參考文獻 51442) 在大西洋西部海洋中在美國從北方的加拿大魁北克到肯乃迪克州分佈於海岸流域。 (參考文獻 5723) 在分佈於流域從波羅的海東大西洋的海洋中說到葡萄牙。 (參考文獻 51442) 陸封的分枝在俄國,芬蘭,瑞典與挪威 (參考文獻 6439) 與北美洲出現。 (參考文獻 1998) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群; 除了在海上之外).

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  较低风险:最小相关 (LR/lc) ; Date assessed: 01 August 1996

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 1.5 - 15.3, mean 9.3 °C (based on 1857 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00854 - 0.01284), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.2; tmax=6; Fecundity=1,600).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.