Heterobranchus longifilis, Sampa : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes, 1840

Sampa
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Heterobranchus longifilis
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Siluriformes (Catfishes) 鯰形目 (Catfishes) > Clariidae (Airbreathing catfishes) 塘蝨魚科 (Airbreathing catfishes)
Etymology: Heterobranchus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, brangchia = gill (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 居於水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m (Ref. 7248).   熱帶; 22°C - 23°C (Ref. 2059); 25°N - 22°S, 16°W - 40°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Africa: Nile, Congo system, upper and middle Zambezi (Ref. 3820). Reported from Lake Rukwa and the lower Zambezi (Ref. 95585). Also from Lakes Tanganyika and Edward (Ref. 7248). In West Africa known from the Gambia, Upper Senegal, Niger, Benue, Lake Chad, Volta, and coastal basins from Guinea to Nigeria, including the delta of Niger and the Cross river (Ref. 57129). In Lower Guinea present in the Cross and Sanaga in Cameroon and the Ogowe in Gabon (Ref. 81644).
非洲: 尼羅河,尼日,塞內加爾,剛果河流域, 上游與中游的尚比西河。 也從坦噶尼喀湖與愛德華湖 (參考文獻 7248) ,甘比亞與貝努埃河,查德與佛塔河流域 , 與幾內亞到奈及利亞的海岸流域.(參考文獻 7357)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4967); 最大體重: 55.0 kg (Ref. 7248)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 26-35; 臀鰭軟條: 42 - 52; 脊椎骨: 55 - 61. Diagnosis: length of rayed dorsal fin 27-36% standard length; 26-35 dorsal-fin rays; length of adipose fin 24-34% standard length; width of vomerine tooth plate 25.0-32.2%, and width of premaxillary tooth plate 29.5-36.9% head length (Ref. 57129, 81644). Pectoral spine with strong, downward-pointed serrations on the anterior side (Ref. 270, 57129, 81644). Length of pectoral fin 12.7-18.0% SL (mean 16) (Ref. 81644). Posterior part of adipose fin blackish (Ref. 4967, 57129). Caudal fin with a whitish cross-bar (Ref. 57129). Head long, broad and somewhat rectangular in dorsal outline (Ref. 270), its length 28.4-35.9% SL (Ref. 81644). Snout broadly rounded; eyes superolateral in position; frontal fontanelle long and narrow; occipital fontanelle oval-shaped; tooth plates wide; suprabranchial organ well developed; caudal fin barred; openings of secondary canals hardly visible but display a regular pattern (Ref. 270). Coloration: preserved specimens: grey, greyish-brown to dark brown on back and sides, and pale brown to whitish on belly; some individuals marbled, particularly on posterior part of body; caudal fin often crossed by several vertical bars, one of which is whitish, hind margin of fin often white-edged; posterior part of adipose fin darker than anterior part (Ref. 57129, 81644).
頭部長的, 寬的與略微矩形的在背部的輪廓中; 吻寬廣地圓的; 眼睛有側面上方的位置。 額骨囪門長而狹窄的; 後頭骨囪門橢圓形的。 廣闊地的齒板。 鰓前的器官發展良好的。 胸棘深鋸齒狀的在前面側邊。 脂鰭有黑色的較後面的部分, 幾乎長達背鰭;(參考文獻 4967) 尾鰭條紋。 第二感覺管的開口很難看見但是顯示一個普通的型態。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

An uncommon species which inhabits large rivers (Ref. 4967). Largest freshwater species in southern Africa; occurs in large deep rivers within the mainstream or in deep pools and lakes or backwaters (Ref. 7248, 78218). Most active at night, feeding on any available food, including invertebrates and insects when small, fish and other small vertebrates when large; scavenges off large carcasses and offal from riverside villages; live for 12 or more years (Ref. 7248). Maximum reported size for West Africa and Lower Guinea: 610 mm TL (Ref. 57129, 81643).

居住於大河的一個稀有的種.(參考文獻 4967) 非洲南部中最大的淡水種是。 出現於主流裡面的極深處河或在深水池與湖中。 最活躍在晚上, 吃任何的有用食物,包括無脊椎動物與昆蟲當小的時候, 魚與其他的小脊椎動物當大的時候。 清理來自河岸村莊的外海的大殘骸與碎肉。 活到 12個或更多數年。 (參考文獻 7248)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

非洲: 尼羅河,尼日,塞內加爾,剛果河流域, 上游與中游的尚比西河。 也從坦噶尼喀湖與愛德華湖 (參考文獻 7248) ,甘比亞與貝努埃河,查德與佛塔河流域 , 與幾內亞到奈及利亞的海岸流域.(參考文獻 7357)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Teugels, G.G., B. Denayer and M. Legendre, 1990. A systematic revision of the African catfish genus Heterobranchus Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, 1809 (Pisces: Clariidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 98:237-257. (Ref. 270)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 29 May 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 養殖: 產生; ; Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00581 - 0.00991), b=2.93 (2.86 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.11; tmax > 11; Fec > 10,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 70.7 [34.5, 132.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.861 [0.520, 1.478] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.2, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.176 [0.083, 0.416] g/100g ; Selenium = 101 [43, 274] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.7 [7.8, 57.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.70, 1.65] mg/100g (wet weight);