Spicara smaris, Picarel : fisheries, gamefish

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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; djupintervall 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3397)

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator | Medarbetare

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell; sportfisk: ja
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
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Nutrients
Mass conversion
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Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

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Internet-källor

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationella databaser | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 °C (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01328), b=3.01 (2.98 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mellan, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 1,4-4,4 år (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 92.3 [45.3, 202.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.965 [0.267, 3.850] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.3, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.69 [0.33, 1.54] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.1 [7.4, 31.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.6 [9.2, 105.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.543 [0.218, 2.212] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.