Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Linophrynidae
Etymology: Haplophryne: Greek, 'haplos' = single or simple + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (meaning "simple toad") (Ref. 86949).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 2250 m (Ref. 58018), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Tropical and subtropical parts of all oceans. Four specimens are known from off Madeira.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58502); common length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1468); common length :5 cm (female)
soft rays: 3. Mature females are unpigmented and have a nearly rounded shape of body. There are spines above the eyes and behind the mouth. The illicium consists of a rounded flap without pole. Small numerous teeth in both jaws (Ref. 557). Free lining males are characterized by: having weak sphenotic spines, nearly absent; slender and angled preopercle; moderately elevated epiotic region of skull; well developed premaxillae; 20-24 teeth on each side of upper and lower jaws (Ref. 86949).
Also mesopelagic (Ref. 7300). A small deep-sea angler fish. Males dwarfed, becoming parasitic on females (Ref. 10762). An 8 cm female was found with 3 parasitic males of 18 mm length, attached to her ventral side. Adult (=parasitic) males are colorless with reduced teeth, jaws, and eyes. Information on the maximum length of female was taken from Ref. 10762.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bertelsen, E., 1990. Linophrynidae. p. 516-519. In J. C. Quero, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 10762)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.9 - 10.8, mean 6.6 °C (based on 1085 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .