Tenualosa toli, Toli shad : fisheries

Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes, 1847)

Toli shad
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Tenualosa toli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tenualosa toli (Toli shad)
Tenualosa toli
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Tenualosa: Latin, tenuis = thin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m (Ref. 26929).   熱帶; 23°N - 7°S, 70°E - 119°E (Ref. 54917)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. Newly recorded from Mauritius (Ref. 33390). May be found in Cambodian Mekong near the Viet Nam border (Ref. 12693).
印度-西太平洋: 印度到爪哇海與南中國海。 最近從模里西斯記錄。 (參考文獻 33390) 可能被發現於在越南邊緣附近的高棉湄公河。 (參考文獻 12693)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12693); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4832); 最大年龄: 2 年 (Ref. 26929)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0. Belly with 28 to 30 scutes. A distinct median notch in upper jaw, which distinguishes it from other similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee. Gill rakers fine but not numerous, 60 to 100 on lower part of arch. Caudal fin short. At most, a dark diffuse mark behind gill opening, but no other spots on flank.
腹面有 28 到 30个鳞甲。 除了 Hilsa kelee 以外,在上颌中的一个明显的中央凹槽,可用来与其他的相似鲱鱼区别。 鳃耙细的但是不是很多,60 到 100 在弓的较下面的部位上。 尾鳍短。 最多, 在鳃裂后面的一个黑的扩散标志, 但是没有在侧面上的其他的斑点。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters (Ref. 26929). Schooling in coastal waters, euryhaline and perhaps anadromous, ascending rivers to breed (but in some areas fishery workers claim that it does not). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Presumably its biology is similar to that of T. ilisha, but the fewer gill rakers suggest that it takes larger food organisms. Reported to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 58784). More data needed especially since it is not always distinguished from T. ilisha, especially at juvenile stages. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.

栖息于快速流动又混浊的河口与毗连的沿岸水域。 (参考文献 26929) 群游于沿岸水域, 广盐性与也许溯河洄游产卵的, 溯溪产卵.(但是在一些地区渔场工人要求那一个它不会) 一个雄性先熟的雌雄同体.(参考文献 55367) 它的生物学特性是推测为类似 T. ilisha, 但是较少的鳃耙显示出,它捕食较大的猎物。 由于它是与不常区分的 T. ilisha ,需要更多的数据尤其, 尤其在幼龄期。 在市场上销售生鲜地了或干燥盐腌。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

A semelparous species, but although each individual spawns only once and then dies, the spawning season for the species as a whole lasts from May to November (Ref. 26929). A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Sex change occurs at a length of 11.0 cm TL and 1.24 years of age (Ref. 55367).印度-西太平洋: 印度到爪哇海與南中國海。 最近從模里西斯記錄。 (參考文獻 33390) 可能被發現於在越南邊緣附近的高棉湄公河。 (參考文獻 12693)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (B2ab(iii,v)); Date assessed: 06 March 2018

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 27.1 - 29.2, mean 28.6 (based on 466 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00623 - 0.01606), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (K=0.7; assuming tmax>3, fec > 10,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.