Tenualosa toli, Toli shad : fisheries

Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes, 1847)

Toli shad
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Tenualosa toli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tenualosa toli (Toli shad)
Tenualosa toli
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Tenualosa: Latin, tenuis = thin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; Água doce; estuarina; anádromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 10 - ? m (Ref. 26929).   Tropical; 23°N - 7°S, 70°E - 119°E (Ref. 54917)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. Newly recorded from Mauritius (Ref. 33390). May be found in Cambodian Mekong near the Viet Nam border (Ref. 12693).

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 12693); common length : 40.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4832); idade máx. registrada: 2 anos (Ref. 26929)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0. Belly with 28 to 30 scutes. A distinct median notch in upper jaw, which distinguishes it from other similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee. Gill rakers fine but not numerous, 60 to 100 on lower part of arch. Caudal fin short. At most, a dark diffuse mark behind gill opening, but no other spots on flank.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters (Ref. 26929). Schooling in coastal waters, euryhaline and perhaps anadromous, ascending rivers to breed (but in some areas fishery workers claim that it does not). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Presumably its biology is similar to that of T. ilisha, but the fewer gill rakers suggest that it takes larger food organisms. Reported to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 58784). More data needed especially since it is not always distinguished from T. ilisha, especially at juvenile stages. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

A semelparous species, but although each individual spawns only once and then dies, the spawning season for the species as a whole lasts from May to November (Ref. 26929). A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Sex change occurs at a length of 11.0 cm TL and 1.24 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerável, ver Livro Vermelho da UICN (VU) (B2ab(iii,v)); Date assessed: 06 March 2018

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 27.1 - 29.2, mean 28.6 (based on 466 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00623 - 0.01606), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (K=0.7; assuming tmax>3, fec > 10,000).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Low.