Tenualosa toli, Toli shad : fisheries

Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes, 1847)

Toli shad
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Tenualosa toli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tenualosa toli (Toli shad)
Tenualosa toli
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Tenualosa: Latin, tenuis = thin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳຈືດ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລ ແລະ ໄປໄຂ່ຢູ່ນ້ຳຈືດ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 10 - ? m (Ref. 26929).   Tropical; 23°N - 7°S, 70°E - 119°E (Ref. 54917)

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. Newly recorded from Mauritius (Ref. 33390). May be found in Cambodian Mekong near the Viet Nam border (Ref. 12693).

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 12693); common length : 40.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 4832); ອາຍຸສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍລາຍງານມາ: 2 ປີ (Ref. 26929)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 0; ຄີ(ໜາມ) ແຂງຢູ່ຄີກົ້ນປາ ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລແລະໄປໄຂ່ຢູ່ນ້ຳຈືດ ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ ສັດທີ່ມີກະດູກສັນຫັຼງ ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ 0. Belly with 28 to 30 scutes. A distinct median notch in upper jaw, which distinguishes it from other similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee. Gill rakers fine but not numerous, 60 to 100 on lower part of arch. Caudal fin short. At most, a dark diffuse mark behind gill opening, but no other spots on flank.

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters (Ref. 26929). Schooling in coastal waters, euryhaline and perhaps anadromous, ascending rivers to breed (but in some areas fishery workers claim that it does not). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Presumably its biology is similar to that of T. ilisha, but the fewer gill rakers suggest that it takes larger food organisms. Reported to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 58784). More data needed especially since it is not always distinguished from T. ilisha, especially at juvenile stages. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

A semelparous species, but although each individual spawns only once and then dies, the spawning season for the species as a whole lasts from May to November (Ref. 26929). A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Sex change occurs at a length of 11.0 cm TL and 1.24 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ທີ່ມີການຄ້າສູງ

ຂໍ້ມູນຕື່ມອີກ

ປະເທດ
ເຂດ FAO
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ການປະກົດຕົວ
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ນິເວດວິທະຍາ
ອາຫານ
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ການບໍລິໂພກອາຫານ
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ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ
ການເຜົາໃໝ້ພະລັງງານໂດຍປ່ຽນທາດອາຫານໃນຮ່າງກາຍໃຫ້ກາຍເປັນຊີ້ນແລະໜັງ
ຜູ້ລ້າ
ການສຶກສາຜົນກະທົບຂອງສານຜິດທີ່ມີຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ
ການສືບພັນ
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ການວາງໄຂ່
ການສັງລວມການວາງໄຂ່
ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ
ໄຂ່
Egg development
Age/Size
ການເຕີບໃຫຍ່
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…
ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ
ຕົວອ່ອນ
ການປ່ຽນແປງຂອງຕົວອ່ອນ
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ສາຍພັນ
ກຳມະພັນ
ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ
ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ
ພະຍາດ
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Mass conversion
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ຮູບ
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ສຽງ
ຫອຍມີພິດຊະນິດນຶ່ງທີ່ອາໄສໃນທະເລ
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ເນື້ອທີ່ເຫືອກ
Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 27.1 - 29.2, mean 28.6 (based on 466 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00623 - 0.01606), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ສູງ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງໜ້ອຍກວ່າ 15 ເດືອນ (K=0.7; assuming tmax>3, fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.