Alosa maeotica, Black sea shad : fisheries

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Alosa maeotica (Grimm, 1901)

Black sea shad
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Image of Alosa maeotica (Black sea shad)
Alosa maeotica
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水.   溫帶; 48°N - 40°N, 27°E - 43°E (Ref. 188)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
歐亞大陸: 黑海與亞速海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - 15 cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59105); common length : 18.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大年龄: 6 年 (Ref. 10547)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. Gill rakers thin and straight, often closely packed and pointed, usually shorter than gill filaments. Teeth well developed in both jaws. Other Black Sea Alosa have more gill rakers (A. caspia 50 to 80 and A. pontica 47 to 66). Sardinella aurita is more slender, has many more gill rakers and i 8 pelvic fin rays.
身体相当延长, 更多像鲱鱼一样的 '超过像非鱼类一样的'. 鳃耙细的与直线, 时常挤在一起与尖的, 通常短于鳃丝。 双颚内的齿发展良好的。 其他的黑海 Alosa 有更多的鳃耙。 ( A. caspia50 到 80 与 A. pontica47 到 66) 沙丁鱼 aurita 是更细长的, 有更多鳃耙与 i 8个腹鳍鳍条。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Non-anadromous, entering limans and lower parts of river deltas, but only occasionally in freshwater. They are more or less abundant in lower reaches of rivers and coastal lagoons. A cold-loving species, tolerating 3 or 4°C.(Ref. 188). At sea, pelagic in deep water and enters brackish lagoons to spawn. Mature adults spawn first at 2 years and many individuals spawn for 2-4 seasons. Eggs sink to bottom. Spent individuals return to the sea to feed. In autumn, they migrate to southern Black Sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to the sea or estuaries during the first summer (Ref. 59043). Adults feed mainly on small fishes (mainly sprats and anchovies) also on shrimps, gammarids and other large crustaceans (Ref. 188). In northern Black Sea, the decline in habitat quality in suitable estuarine ecosystems is expected to have an impact in the immediate future (Ref. 59043).

非溯河洄游产卵, 进入 limans 与河三角州的下部, 但是仅偶然地在淡水中。 被容忍 3 或 4 ° C. 的一个喜欢寒冷的种 主要吃小鱼 (主要地鲱鱼与 鱼) 也捕食虾类, 夜蛾与其他的大甲壳动物。 产卵在春天与初夏。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Juveniles migrate to sea or remain in estuaries during their first summer (Ref. 59043). In autumn, they migrate to southern Black Sea to overwinter. As spring approaches, they start to move into brackish lagoons to spawn until early summer. After spawning, spent fish return to sea to feed. Many individuals spawn for 2-4 seasons (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 黑海與亞速海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
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更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
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养殖信息
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速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00435 - 0.01263), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax=6).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.