Alosa maeotica, Black sea shad : fisheries

Alosa maeotica (Grimm, 1901)

Black sea shad
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Alosa maeotica
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水.   溫帶; 48°N - 40°N, 27°E - 43°E (Ref. 188)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
歐亞大陸: 黑海與亞速海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - 15 cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59105); common length : 18.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大年齡: 6 年 (Ref. 10547)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. Gill rakers thin and straight, often closely packed and pointed, usually shorter than gill filaments. Teeth well developed in both jaws. Other Black Sea Alosa have more gill rakers (A. caspia 50 to 80 and A. pontica 47 to 66). Sardinella aurita is more slender, has many more gill rakers and i 8 pelvic fin rays.
身體相當延長, 更多像鯡魚一樣的 '超過像非魚類一樣的'. 鰓耙細的與直線, 時常擠在一起與尖的, 通常短於鰓絲。 雙顎內的齒發展良好的。 其他的黑海 Alosa 有更多的鰓耙。 ( A. caspia50 到 80 與 A. pontica47 到 66) 沙丁魚 aurita 是更細長的, 有更多鰓耙與 i 8個腹鰭鰭條。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Non-anadromous, entering limans and lower parts of river deltas, but only occasionally in freshwater. They are more or less abundant in lower reaches of rivers and coastal lagoons. A cold-loving species, tolerating 3 or 4°C.(Ref. 188). At sea, pelagic in deep water and enters brackish lagoons to spawn. Mature adults spawn first at 2 years and many individuals spawn for 2-4 seasons. Eggs sink to bottom. Spent individuals return to the sea to feed. In autumn, they migrate to southern Black Sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to the sea or estuaries during the first summer (Ref. 59043). Adults feed mainly on small fishes (mainly sprats and anchovies) also on shrimps, gammarids and other large crustaceans (Ref. 188). In northern Black Sea, the decline in habitat quality in suitable estuarine ecosystems is expected to have an impact in the immediate future (Ref. 59043).

非溯河洄游產卵, 進入 limans 與河三角州的下部, 但是僅偶然地在淡水中。 被容忍 3 或 4 ° C. 的一個喜歡寒冷的種 主要吃小魚 (主要地鯡魚與鯷魚) 也捕食蝦類, 夜蛾與其他的大甲殼動物。 產卵在春天與初夏。 (參考文獻 188) 卵下沉底部。 (參考文獻 59043)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Juveniles migrate to sea or remain in estuaries during their first summer (Ref. 59043). In autumn, they migrate to southern Black Sea to overwinter. As spring approaches, they start to move into brackish lagoons to spawn until early summer. After spawning, spent fish return to sea to feed. Many individuals spawn for 2-4 seasons (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 黑海與亞速海。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00435 - 0.01263), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax=6).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.