Sardinops sagax, South American pilchard : fisheries, bait
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Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842)

South American pilchard
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Sardinops sagax   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sardinops sagax
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardinops: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335);  sagax: From the latin word 'sagax' which means of quick perception, acute, or alert (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 188).   亞熱帶的; 9°C - 21°C (Ref. 6390); 61°N - 47°S, 145°W - 180°E (Ref. 36641)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (ocellatus) and Australia (neopilchardus); Chile (sagax) and California (caeruleus); and, Japan (melanostictus) (Ref. 36641).
印度-太平洋: 非洲南部到東太平洋.(參考文獻 27267) 三個世系被確認過簡單式分歧的群聚分析與簡約分析: 非洲南部 ( ocellatus) 與澳洲 ( neopilchardus); 智利 ( sagax) 與加州 ( caeruleus); 並且, 日本 ( melanostictus).(參考文獻 36641)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.5 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9291); common length : 20.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大体重: 486.00 g (Ref. 6885); 最大年龄: 25 年 (Ref. 188)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 13-21; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 23; 脊椎骨: 48 - 54. Body cylindrical and elongate; ventral part of operculum with clear cut bony striae radiating downwards; belly rounded with ventral scutes; back blue green; flanks white, with 1 to 3 series of dark spots along the middle (Ref. 55763). The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this species from all other clupeids in the area. The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area. In New Zealand the species appears to grow larger (21.3 cm standard length; cf. 19.7 cm), has slightly larger eggs and a higher mean number of vertebrae (50.52; cf. 49 to 50.08 in various samples) (Ref. 859).
身体圆筒形的与延长; 腹部份鳃盖有清澈的刺伤向下正在放射的多骨的陷纹; 腹面以腹的鳞甲圆的; 背面蓝色的绿色; 侧面白色, 1 到 3个成列的深色斑点沿着中央.(参考文献 55763) 在鳃盖上的放射状骨质陷纹在区域中将此种与所有的其他鲱鱼区分开。 在鳃盖上的放射状骨质陷纹在区域中区别来自所有的其他鲱鱼的这一个鱼。 在纽西兰此鱼种似乎生长比较大 (21.3 公分标准长度; 比较 19.7 公分), 有略大卵与一个脊椎骨的比较高的平均数字 (50.52; 比较 49 到 50.08 在各种不同的样本中).(參考文獻 859)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Neritic (Ref. 11230). A coastal species that forms large schools (Ref. 188). Occur at temperatures ranging from 16° to 23°C in summer and from 10° to 18°C in winter. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans. Young fish feed on zooplankton such as copepod and adults on phytoplankton (Ref. 39882). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs, and pelagic larvae (Ref. 265). Possibly can live up to 25 years (Ref. 265). In the California region, pilchards make northward migrations early in summer and travel back south again in autumn. With each year of life, the migration becomes farther (Ref. 6885). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Utilized mainly for fish meal; but also eaten fried and broiled (Ref. 9988). Main source of landing: NE Pacific: Mexico (Ref. 4931).

浅海的.(参考文献 11230) 一个形成大群鱼群的沿岸鱼种.(参考文献 188) 在夏天出现温度范围从对 23 °C 的 16个 ° 与从 10个 ° 到 18 °C 冬天时。 主要捕食浮游性甲壳动物。 幼鱼捕食浮游动物例如桡脚类的动物而且成鱼捕食浮游植物。 (参考文献 39882) 卵生的, 有大洋性的卵 , 与大洋性仔鱼。 (参考文献 265) 也许能活超过 25 年.(参考文献 265) 在加州区域中,沙丁鱼在夏天初期发动向北的回游而且再一次秋天时游回来南方。 生命中的每一年, 迁移变成更远.(参考文献 6885) 在市场上销售生鲜地了,冻结或装于罐头。 主要地用作鱼粉了; 也油炸后食用而且火烤.(参考文献 9988) 登陆的主要源头: 东北太平洋: 墨西哥.(参考文献 4931)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous (Ref. 265). In the Gulf of California, some individuals spawn in their first year, but most in their second (Ref. 188). In Australia (as S. neopilchardus), this species breeds in spring and summer in southern part of range, and in summer and autumn in northern part, apparently related to seasonal movement of the limiting 14°C and 21°C isotherms, then autumn to early spring (Ref. 6390). It was believed that individual Australian pilchards only spawn once or twice in a season (Ref. 26422, 26424), but research on related species suggests that they may spawn a number of times (Ref. 6882). Batch fecundities range from about 10,000 eggs in 13 cm long females to about 45,000 eggs in females of about 18 cm (Ref. 26420).印度-太平洋: 非洲南部到東太平洋.(參考文獻 27267) 三個世系被確認過簡單式分歧的群聚分析與簡約分析: 非洲南部 ( ocellatus) 與澳洲 ( neopilchardus); 智利 ( sagax) 與加州 ( caeruleus); 並且, 日本 ( melanostictus).(參考文獻 36641)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 诱饵: usually
FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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网络资源

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9.5 - 25.2, mean 17.9 °C (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00731 - 0.01086), b=3.06 (3.01 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.45; tm=2; tmax=13-25; Fec=10,000).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 10 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 184 [51, 528] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.47 [0.87, 5.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.9 [18.6, 23.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.78 [0.40, 1.50] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.3 [14.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.6 [2.4, 55.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.7 [0.7, 3.4] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.