Sardinops sagax, South American pilchard : fisheries, bait
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Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842)

South American pilchard
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Sardinops sagax   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sardinops sagax
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardinops: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335);  sagax: From the latin word 'sagax' which means of quick perception, acute, or alert (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 188).   亞熱帶的; 9°C - 21°C (Ref. 6390); 61°N - 47°S, 145°W - 180°E (Ref. 36641)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (ocellatus) and Australia (neopilchardus); Chile (sagax) and California (caeruleus); and, Japan (melanostictus) (Ref. 36641).
印度-太平洋: 非洲南部到東太平洋.(參考文獻 27267) 三個世系被確認過簡單式分歧的群聚分析與簡約分析: 非洲南部 ( ocellatus) 與澳洲 ( neopilchardus); 智利 ( sagax) 與加州 ( caeruleus); 並且, 日本 ( melanostictus).(參考文獻 36641)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.5 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9291); common length : 20.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大體重: 486.00 g (Ref. 6885); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 188)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-21; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 23; 脊椎骨: 48 - 54. Body cylindrical and elongate; ventral part of operculum with clear cut bony striae radiating downwards; belly rounded with ventral scutes; back blue green; flanks white, with 1 to 3 series of dark spots along the middle (Ref. 55763). The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this species from all other clupeids in the area. The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area. In New Zealand the species appears to grow larger (21.3 cm standard length; cf. 19.7 cm), has slightly larger eggs and a higher mean number of vertebrae (50.52; cf. 49 to 50.08 in various samples) (Ref. 859).
在鰓蓋上的放射狀骨質陷紋在區域中將此種與所有的其他鯡魚區分開。 在鰓蓋上的放射狀骨質陷紋在區域中區別來自所有的其他鯡魚的這一個魚。 在紐西蘭此魚種中似乎生長比較大 (21.3 公分標準長度; 比較 19.7 公分), 有略大卵與一個脊椎骨的比較高的平均數字 (50.52; 比較 49 到 50.08 在各種不同的樣本中).(參考文獻 859)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Neritic (Ref. 11230). A coastal species that forms large schools (Ref. 188). Occur at temperatures ranging from 16° to 23°C in summer and from 10° to 18°C in winter. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans. Young fish feed on zooplankton such as copepod and adults on phytoplankton (Ref. 39882). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs, and pelagic larvae (Ref. 265). Possibly can live up to 25 years (Ref. 265). In the California region, pilchards make northward migrations early in summer and travel back south again in autumn. With each year of life, the migration becomes farther (Ref. 6885). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Utilized mainly for fish meal; but also eaten fried and broiled (Ref. 9988). Main source of landing: NE Pacific: Mexico (Ref. 4931).

淺海的.(參考文獻 11230) 一個形成大群魚群的沿岸魚種.(參考文獻 188) 在夏天出現溫度範圍從對 23 °C 的 16個 ° 與從 10個 ° 到 18 °C 冬天時。 主要捕食浮游性甲殼動物。 幼魚捕食浮游動物例如橈腳類的動物而且成魚捕食浮游植物。 (參考文獻 39882) 卵生的, 有大洋性的卵 , 與大洋性仔魚。 (參考文獻 265) 也許能活超過 25 年.(參考文獻 265) 在加州區域中,沙丁魚在夏天初期發動向北的迴游而且再一次秋天時游回來南方。 生命中的每一年, 遷移變成更遠.(參考文獻 6885) 在市場上銷售生鮮地了,凍結或裝於罐頭。 主要地用作魚粉了; 也油炸後食用而且火烤.(參考文獻 9988) 登陸的主要源頭: 東北太平洋: 墨西哥.(參考文獻 4931)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous (Ref. 265). In the Gulf of California, some individuals spawn in their first year, but most in their second (Ref. 188). In Australia (as S. neopilchardus), this species breeds in spring and summer in southern part of range, and in summer and autumn in northern part, apparently related to seasonal movement of the limiting 14°C and 21°C isotherms, then autumn to early spring (Ref. 6390). It was believed that individual Australian pilchards only spawn once or twice in a season (Ref. 26422, 26424), but research on related species suggests that they may spawn a number of times (Ref. 6882). Batch fecundities range from about 10,000 eggs in 13 cm long females to about 45,000 eggs in females of about 18 cm (Ref. 26420).印度-太平洋: 非洲南部到東太平洋.(參考文獻 27267) 三個世系被確認過簡單式分歧的群聚分析與簡約分析: 非洲南部 ( ocellatus) 與澳洲 ( neopilchardus); 智利 ( sagax) 與加州 ( caeruleus); 並且, 日本 ( melanostictus).(參考文獻 36641)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 誘餌: usually
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9.5 - 25.2, mean 17.9 °C (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00731 - 0.01086), b=3.06 (3.01 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.45; tm=2; tmax=13-25; Fec=10,000).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 10 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 184 [51, 528] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.47 [0.87, 5.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.9 [18.6, 23.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.78 [0.40, 1.50] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.3 [14.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.6 [2.4, 55.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.7 [0.7, 3.4] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.