Sardinops sagax, South American pilchard : fisheries, bait
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Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842)

South American pilchard
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Sardinops sagax
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Classification / Names প্রচলিত নাম সমূহ | প্রতিনাম সমূহ | Catalog of Fishes(গণ , প্রজাতি ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardinops: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335);  sagax: From the latin word 'sagax' which means of quick perception, acute, or alert (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range বাস্তুসংস্থান

; সামুদ্রিক; মহাসাগরে বিচরনক্ষম (Ref. 51243); গভীরতার পরিসীমা 0 - 200 m (Ref. 188).   Subtropical; 9°C - 21°C (Ref. 6390); 61°N - 47°S, 145°W - 180°E (Ref. 36641)

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Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (ocellatus) and Australia (neopilchardus); Chile (sagax) and California (caeruleus); and, Japan (melanostictus) (Ref. 36641).

Length at first maturity / আকৃতি / ওজন / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.5 cm SL পুরুষ/ লিঙ্গ অনিধর্ারিত ; (Ref. 9291); common length : 20.0 cm SL পুরুষ/ লিঙ্গ অনিধর্ারিত ; (Ref. 188); সবের্াচ্চ প্রকাশিত ওজন : 486.00 g (Ref. 6885); সর্বোচ্চ উলি্ল্লখিত বয়স : 25 বৎসর (Ref. 188)

Short description বহিঃ অঙ্গ সংস্থান | মরফোমেট্রিক্স

পৃষ্ঠীয় কাঁটা (মোট ): 0; পৃষ্ঠীয় নরম পাখনা দন্ড (মোট ): 13-21; পায়ূ কাঁটা 0; পায়ূর নরম পাখনা্তুন্ড: 12 - 23; কশেরুকা : 48 - 54. Body cylindrical and elongate; ventral part of operculum with clear cut bony striae radiating downwards; belly rounded with ventral scutes; back blue green; flanks white, with 1 to 3 series of dark spots along the middle (Ref. 55763). The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this species from all other clupeids in the area. The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area. In New Zealand the species appears to grow larger (21.3 cm standard length; cf. 19.7 cm), has slightly larger eggs and a higher mean number of vertebrae (50.52; cf. 49 to 50.08 in various samples) (Ref. 859).

জীববিজ্ঞান     শব্দকোষ (উদাহরণ স্বরূপ epibenthic)

Neritic (Ref. 11230). A coastal species that forms large schools (Ref. 188). Occur at temperatures ranging from 16° to 23°C in summer and from 10° to 18°C in winter. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans. Young fish feed on zooplankton such as copepod and adults on phytoplankton (Ref. 39882). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs, and pelagic larvae (Ref. 265). Possibly can live up to 25 years (Ref. 265). In the California region, pilchards make northward migrations early in summer and travel back south again in autumn. With each year of life, the migration becomes farther (Ref. 6885). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Utilized mainly for fish meal; but also eaten fried and broiled (Ref. 9988). Main source of landing: NE Pacific: Mexico (Ref. 4931).

Life cycle and mating behavior পরিপক্কতা | প্রজনন | ডিম ছাড়া | ডিমসমূহ | ডিম্বধারন ক্ষমতা | শুককীট

Oviparous (Ref. 265). In the Gulf of California, some individuals spawn in their first year, but most in their second (Ref. 188). In Australia (as S. neopilchardus), this species breeds in spring and summer in southern part of range, and in summer and autumn in northern part, apparently related to seasonal movement of the limiting 14°C and 21°C isotherms, then autumn to early spring (Ref. 6390). It was believed that individual Australian pilchards only spawn once or twice in a season (Ref. 26422, 26424), but research on related species suggests that they may spawn a number of times (Ref. 6882). Batch fecundities range from about 10,000 eggs in 13 cm long females to about 45,000 eggs in females of about 18 cm (Ref. 26420).

Main reference Upload your references | সূত্র সংখ্যা | সমম্বয়কারী | সহযোগী

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

মৎস্য: অত্যন্ত বাণিজ্যিক ; স্পশর্ী : usually

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9.5 - 25.2, mean 17.9 °C (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00731 - 0.01086), b=3.06 (3.01 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
ট্রফিক পর্যায়ে (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
স্থিতিস্থাপক (Ref. 120179):  মাধ্যম , সর্বনিম্ন প্রজন দ্বিগুনের সময় ১.৪-৪.৪ বৎসর (K=0.45; tm=2; tmax=13-25; Fec=10,000).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 10 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 184 [51, 528] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.47 [0.87, 5.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.9 [18.6, 23.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.78 [0.40, 1.50] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.3 [14.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.6 [2.4, 55.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.7 [0.7, 3.4] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.