Sardinops sagax, South American pilchard : fisheries, bait

Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842)

South American pilchard
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Sardinops sagax   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sardinops sagax
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klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardinops: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335);  sagax: From the latin word 'sagax' which means of quick perception, acute, or alert (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 200 m (Ref. 188).   Subtropical; 9°C - 21°C (Ref. 6390); 61°N - 47°S, 145°W - 180°E (Ref. 36641)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (ocellatus) and Australia (neopilchardus); Chile (sagax) and California (caeruleus); and, Japan (melanostictus) (Ref. 36641).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.5 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 9291); common length : 20.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 188); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 486.00 g (Ref. 6885); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 25 Tahun (Ref. 188)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 13-21; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 12 - 23; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 48 - 54. Body cylindrical and elongate; ventral part of operculum with clear cut bony striae radiating downwards; belly rounded with ventral scutes; back blue green; flanks white, with 1 to 3 series of dark spots along the middle (Ref. 55763). The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this species from all other clupeids in the area. The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area. In New Zealand the species appears to grow larger (21.3 cm standard length; cf. 19.7 cm), has slightly larger eggs and a higher mean number of vertebrae (50.52; cf. 49 to 50.08 in various samples) (Ref. 859).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Neritic (Ref. 11230). A coastal species that forms large schools (Ref. 188). Occur at temperatures ranging from 16° to 23°C in summer and from 10° to 18°C in winter. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans. Young fish feed on zooplankton such as copepod and adults on phytoplankton (Ref. 39882). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs, and pelagic larvae (Ref. 265). Possibly can live up to 25 years (Ref. 265). In the California region, pilchards make northward migrations early in summer and travel back south again in autumn. With each year of life, the migration becomes farther (Ref. 6885). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Utilized mainly for fish meal; but also eaten fried and broiled (Ref. 9988). Main source of landing: NE Pacific: Mexico (Ref. 4931).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Oviparous (Ref. 265). In the Gulf of California, some individuals spawn in their first year, but most in their second (Ref. 188). In Australia (as S. neopilchardus), this species breeds in spring and summer in southern part of range, and in summer and autumn in northern part, apparently related to seasonal movement of the limiting 14°C and 21°C isotherms, then autumn to early spring (Ref. 6390). It was believed that individual Australian pilchards only spawn once or twice in a season (Ref. 26422, 26424), but research on related species suggests that they may spawn a number of times (Ref. 6882). Batch fecundities range from about 10,000 eggs in 13 cm long females to about 45,000 eggs in females of about 18 cm (Ref. 26420).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; umpan: usually
FAO - Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | OsteoBase: skull, spine | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9.5 - 25.2, mean 17.9 °C (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00731 - 0.01086), b=3.06 (3.01 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.45; tm=2; tmax=13-25; Fec=10,000).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 10 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 184 [51, 528] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.47 [0.87, 5.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.9 [18.6, 23.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.78 [0.40, 1.50] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.3 [14.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.6 [2.4, 55.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.7 [0.7, 3.4] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.