分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Cyprinus: Latin, cyprinus = carp (Ref. 45335); carpio: carpio is the latinized form of carp (Ref. 1998). Cyprinus is the old world name for the carp (Ref. 10294). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; pH range: 6.5 - 9.0; dH range: 10 - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 29 m (Ref. 120823). Subtropical; 3°C - 35°C (Ref. 12741); 54°N - 34°N, 12°E - 74°E (Ref. 59043)
Europe to Asia: Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins. Introduced throughout the world. Wild stocks are only present naturally in rivers draining to the Black, Caspian and Aral Sea (Ref. 59043). A reophilic wild population in the Danube is assumed to be the origin of the European species; this population is now under threat (Ref. 13696).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 34.9, range 25 - 36 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 27549); common length : 31.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3561); 最大公表体重: 40.1 kg (Ref. 72380); 最大記録サイズ: 38 年 (Ref. 72479)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 3 - 4; 背鰭 (合計): 17-23; 肛門の骨 2-3; 臀鰭: 5 - 6; 脊つい: 36 - 37. Diagnosed from other cyprinid species in Europe by having the following characters: 2 pairs of barbels; dorsal fin with 15-20½ branched rays; caudal fin deeply emarginate (Ref. 59043). Pharyngeal teeth 1, 1, 3:3, 1,1, robust, molar-like with crown flattened or somewhat furrowed. Scales large and thick. `Wild carp ' is generally distinguished by its less stocky build with height of body 1:3.2-4.8 in standard length. Very variable in form, proportions, squamation, development of fins, and color. Caudal fin with 3 spines and 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray bony and serrated posteriorly; 4 barbels; 17-20 branched dorsal rays; body grey to bronze (Ref. 43281). Also Ref. 3398, 3410.
Inhabits warm, deep, slow-flowing and still waters such as lowland rivers and large, well vegetated lakes (Ref. 59043). Hardy and tolerant of a wide variety of conditions but generally favor large water bodies with slow flowing or standing water and soft bottom sediments. Thrive in large turbid rivers (Ref. 1998). Most active at dusk and dawn. Both adults and juveniles feed on a variety of benthic organisms and plant material. Breeds along shores or in backwaters. Adults often undertake considerable spawning migration to suitable backwaters and flooded meadows. Larvae survive only in very warm water among shallow submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Occurs at depths of <30m (Ref. 120613) and found sucking in floating insects at the surface (Ref. 120823). River regulation and hybridization with domesticated stocks, East Asian congeners and their hybrids have caused continuous decline of wild populations (Ref. 59043). Utilized fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size >200 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawn in marginal, shallow, weed-infested areas. A polytypic plastic species with a marked tendency to produce `varieties' and `races' in response to selective breeding and environmental influences. Carp is polygamous. A spawning female is usually followed by several males. Under tropical conditions carp breeds throughout the year. It is a seasonal spawner in temperate waters (Ref. 185). Females are known to lay more than a million eggs in a season; breeds at a temperature range of 15° C to 20°C; eggs hatch in 4 days (Ref. 6028). Obligatory plant spawners (Ref. 7471). "Adults often make considerable spawning migrations to suitable backwaters and flooded meadows. Individual females spawn with a few males in dense vegetation. The sticky eggs are attached to water plants or other submerged objects. Reproductive success is restricted to years when the water level starts rising in May and when high temperatures and flooding of terrestrial vegetation last for a long period during May and June" (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 商業
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01702 - 0.02037), b=2.94 (2.91 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.2 (3.5 - 6.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 41 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.10-0.30; tm=1-3; tmax=20; Fec=36,000-2,000,000).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .