Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; Ở đại duơng, biển (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 47°W - 45°E
Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of
P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 3397); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 50 các năm (Ref. 173)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 0; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 65-79; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.
Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).
Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng; Bể nuôi cá: Bể cá công cộng
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Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00712 - 0.00928), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.1 - 11.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.79, Based on 20 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .