Pleuronectes platessa, European plaice : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758

European plaice
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Pleuronectes platessa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pleuronectes platessa
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 47°W - 45°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3397); peso máx. publicado: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); idade máx. registrada: 50 anos (Ref. 173)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 65-79; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Amaoka, Kunio | Colaboradores

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 123251)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 October 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

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Fontes da internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Checar Observador de Peixes (FishWatcher) | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genoma, nucleotídeo) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de dados nacionais | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquários públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árvore da vida | Wikipedia(Ir para, procura) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Registro zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 658 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00712 - 0.00928), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.1 - 11.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.79, Based on 20 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Medium.