Pleuronectes platessa, European plaice : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758

European plaice
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pleuronectes platessa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)
Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater demersaal; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 47°W - 45°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3397); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 50 jaren (Ref. 173)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 65-79; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Medewerkers

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 October 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: van groot commercieel belang; Aquacultuur: commercieel; vis voor de hengelsport: ja; Aquarium: Publieke aquaria
FAO(Visserij: production, soortsprofiel; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet-bronnen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Bekijk FishWatcher gegevens | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genoom, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale databanken | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Publieke aquaria | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(ga naar, zoek) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00712 - 0.00928), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.1 - 11.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.79, Based on 20 stock assessments.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Medium.