Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Mullus surmuletus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ ອາໄສຢູ່ໃກ້ໜ້າດິນໃຕ້ພື້ນທ້ອງນ້ຳ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍໃນສະເພາະມາະຫາສະມຸດ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 4845); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); ອາຍຸສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍລາຍງານມາ: 11 ປີ (Ref. 92286)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : Randall, John E. | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ຊະນິດປາທີ່ຖືກນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຫາເພື່ອເປັນເກມກິລາ: ແມ່ນ

ຂໍ້ມູນຕື່ມອີກ

ຊື່ສາມັນ
ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ
ການເຜົາໃໝ້ພະລັງງານໂດຍປ່ຽນທາດອາຫານໃນຮ່າງກາຍໃຫ້ກາຍເປັນຊີ້ນແລະໜັງ
ຜູ້ລ້າ
ການສຶກສາຜົນກະທົບຂອງສານຜິດທີ່ມີຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ
ການສືບພັນ
ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ
ການວາງໄຂ່
ການສັງລວມການວາງໄຂ່
ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ
ໄຂ່
Egg development
ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ
ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ຂໍ້ມູນການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ສາຍພັນ
ກຳມະພັນ
ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ
ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ
ພະຍາດ
ການປຸງແຕ່ງ
Mass conversion
ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື
ຮູບ
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ສຽງ
ຫອຍມີພິດຊະນິດນຶ່ງທີ່ອາໄສໃນທະເລ
ຄວາມໄວ
ປະເພດການລອຍ
ເນື້ອທີ່ເຫືອກ
Otoliths
ສະໝອງ
ວິໄສທັດ

ເຄື່ອງມື

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 549 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00831 - 0.01001), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.1 (2.6 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຂະໜາດກາງ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 1.4 - 4.4 ປີ (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.