Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Mullus surmuletus (Surmullet)
Mullus surmuletus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ακτινοπτερύγιοι > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά) βενθικό(ς); ωκεανόδρομο(ς) (Ref. 51243); εύρος βάθους 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 4845); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); μεγ. αναφερόμενη ηλικία: 11 έτη (Ref. 92286)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής : Randall, John E. | Συνεργάτες

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

αλιεία: Εμπορικό(ά); αλιεία αναψυχής: ναί

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Κοινά ονόματα
Γεννητική Ωρίμανση
Συναθροίσεις γεννοβολίας
Egg development
Προφίλ υδατοκαλλιέργειας
Συχνότητες αλληλόμορφων
Mass conversion
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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 549 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00831 - 0.01001), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.1 (2.6 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Μεσαίο(α), ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού 1,4 - 4,4 έτη (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.