Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Mullus surmuletus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes) 鬚鯛科 (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   亞熱帶的; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
東大西洋: 西方挪威, 到達喀爾, 塞內加爾與加納利群島的英倫海峽 (稀有的在北海), 包括地中海與黑海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4845); 最大體重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); 最大年齡: 11 年 (Ref. 92286)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).
頭部是比較不陡峭。 觸鬚長度超過胸鰭。 身體有縱向的紅色與褐色斑紋。 第一背鰭有深色斑紋。 (參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

生活於斷掉的與粗燥的底部也在深度小於 100 公尺發現在沙子與軟質底部上面了。 吃底棲的生物例如蝦與片腳類動物,多毛類動物,軟體動物與底棲的魚。 從五月到七月, 卵產卵,而且仔魚是大洋性的。 (參考文獻 4845) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍為蒸, 煎的, 燒與烤.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).東大西洋: 西方挪威, 到達喀爾, 塞內加爾與加納利群島的英倫海峽 (稀有的在北海), 包括地中海與黑海。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Randall, John E. | 合作者

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 549 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00831 - 0.01001), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.1 (2.6 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.