Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 20 - 200 m (Ref. 9563). Temperate; 29°S - 47°S, 113°E - 176°W
Indo-West Pacific: New Zealand and Australia (southern Western Australia to New South Wales and Tasmania).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9563); common length : 25.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9258)
Spine dorsali (totale): 2; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 32-38; Raggi anali molli: 31 - 36. Scales small with numerous tiny spinules, prominent first dorsal spine above eyes (Ref. 9002).
Inhabits rocky weedy areas from the shore to at least 60 m. Generally solitary but may aggregate in groups of 10-15 individuals in midwater. Feeds mainly on sessile and encrusting organisms, with sponges and ascidians predominating (Ref. 26966); also seen feeding mid-water on zooplankton and likes to bite diver's fingers (Ref. 9002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Armitage, R.O., D.A. Payne, G.J. Lockley, H.M. Currie, R.L. Colban, B.G. Lamb and L.J. Paul (eds.), 1994. Guide book to New Zealand commercial fish species. Revised edition. New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, Wellington, New Zealand, 216 p. (Ref. 9258)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.4 - 17.7, mean 15.1 °C (based on 141 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01512 - 0.05254), b=2.95 (2.79 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Assuming tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 51.8 [16.1, 120.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.38 [0.20, 0.78] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [15.9, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.478 [0.208, 1.046] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.2 [8.6, 40.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.89 [2.01, 22.26] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.588 [0.348, 1.002] mg/100g (wet weight);