分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海 関連する礁; 移住性ではない (Ref. 56524); 深さの範囲 0 - 170 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 36°N - 6°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)
Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida (USA), Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and the Caribbean; including the Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 16.0, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 42.6 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 40637); common length : 20.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3708); 最大公表体重: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大記録サイズ: 13 年 (Ref. 36271)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 9; 背鰭 (合計): 13-15; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: body depth 2.5-2.9 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL (Ref. 089707); opercle with 3 flat spines, middle one the largest and upper spine longer than the lowest; pelvic fins shorter than pectorals; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin; has 4 contrasting spots, white or black, along body below dorsal fin base (Ref. 26938); color in market: pale orange, grey or brown with reddish spots; black spots on the upper body below the dorsal fin (Ref. 089707).
Inhabits Thalassia beds and coral reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico, they are found on rocky reef ledge in depths greater than 27 m. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and secretive, they usually stay near hiding places during the day. Prefer to remain within a small area of the home range of about 2,120 square m especially during the day (Ref. 56524). Nocturnal predators, adults feed mainly on fishes, with preference on Chromis multilineata, while juveniles feed on shrimps. Due to its small size, this is not a particularly sought-after species. Easily approached and fed by divers (Ref. 9710). Protogynous (Ref. 26938). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 10 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Most change sex between 20 and 23 cm (ages 4 and 5), with sexual transition occurring immediately after spawning in August and September (Ref. 3092).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 28, mean 26.4 °C (based on 328 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00665 - 0.01982), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.34-0.35; tm=3.5-5.5; tmax=9; Fec=260,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.6 [17.3, 67.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.944 [0.446, 1.779] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.2, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.257 [0.138, 0.472] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.1 [9.6, 37.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 89.6 [28.7, 300.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.613 [0.388, 1.095] mg/100g (wet weight);