(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 3 - 25 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 33°N - 26°S, 98°W - 31°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), Bahamas, and northeastern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America; throughout the Caribbean (Ref. 3802, 13628). Range probably extends to Brazil (Ref. 13628).
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9710); common length : 18.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3802)
Spine dorsali (totale): 9; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 10; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 9. White stripe above upper dark stripe ends at gill opening; upper and lower caudal margins pale (Ref. 26938). Terminal phase males are blue-green and orange, chest and head pink below a green band at lower edge of eye; median fins with blue borders, the broad central parts orange with linear blue markings (Ref. 13442).
Found over shallow, clear waters, generally over Thalassia beds (Ref. 13628). Also found rocky or coral areas (Ref. 13628). A schooling species. Feeds on plants. A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Super males spawn individually with striped females, while sexually mature males in the striped phase spawn in aggregation.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Diandric. Length at sex change = 9.6 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Forms harem groups composed of a single male and several smaller females (Ref. 55367).
Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin, 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. (Ref. 5521)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 645 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00719 - 0.01751), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37 [20, 69] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.47 [0.83, 2.81] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.5, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.14 [0.08, 0.24] g/100g ; Selenium = 10.3 [5.2, 18.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.6 [2.5, 45.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.88 [1.24, 2.83] mg/100g (wet weight);