分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 3 - 100 m (Ref. 7379). 亞熱帶的; 33°N - 30°S, 99°W - 14°W
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bahamas to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: off Ascension Island (Ref. 7379) and St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
西大西洋: 美國的佛羅里達與巴哈馬到巴西。 也墨西哥灣與加勒比海, 包括安地列斯群島.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 外海的阿森松島 (參考文獻 7379) 與聖保羅岩礁.(參考文獻 13121)
大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.1 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9626); common length : 28.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3797)
背棘 (总数): 10; 背的软条 (总数): 29-31; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 22 - 24. Black, the scales of the body , except those at front from nape to abdomen, rimmed with golden yellow; a broad orange-yellow bar at pectoral absent; dorsal filament yellow; chin whitish; outer part of iris yellow; eye narrowly rimmed below with blue (Ref. 13442)
黑色，身体的鳞片，在从后颈到腹部的前面除了那些以外，边金黄色的; 一条宽的橘黄色的横带在胸鳍不存在; 背部的丝状突起黄色; 下巴微白色的; 虹膜黄色的外部部份; 狭窄地镶边在下面的眼有蓝色的 (参考文献 13442)
Common in shallow reefs. Usually in pairs, often near sea fans (Ref. 9710). Feed on sponges, algae, bryozoans, zoantharians, gorgonians and tunicates (Ref. 9626). Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Spawning pairs are strongly territorial, with usually both members vigorously defending their areas against neighboring pairs (Ref. 38726). Juveniles tend cleaning stations where they service a broad range of clients, including jacks, snappers, morays, grunts, surgeonfishes, and wrasses. At the station the cleaner displays a fluttering swimming and when cleaning it touches the clients with its pelvic fins (Ref. 40094). Flesh considered good quality; marketed fresh (Ref. 3797). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35419).
常见于浅水礁区。 通常成对, 时常在海扇的附近.(参考文献 9710) 捕食海绵，藻类，苔藓虫类，六枚珊瑚，柳珊瑚与被囊类。 (参考文献 9626) 卵生的 (参考文献 240) ，一夫一妻的.(参考文献 52884) 一对产卵的鱼强烈具有领域性, 藉由通常两者的成员强有力地防护对抗附近的对他们的区域。 (参考文献 38726) 稚鱼倾向清洁的区域客户，包括鲹科鱼类，笛鲷，海鳗，石鲈，刺尾鱼与隆头鱼科的鱼的在那里它们服务大范围。 在站清洁工显示一摆动游泳而且当清洁的时候，它碰，客户用它的腹鳍.(參考文獻 40094) 肉被認為是好品質; 在市場上銷售生鮮地了。 (參考文獻 3797) 曾經後面在繁殖場.(參考文獻 35419)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
This species manifests apparent permanent pairing and monogamy. During most of the observation period, a single pair swam slowly in a side-to-side orientation at a height of 25 to 75 cm above the reef. No conspicuous courtship displays were evident, nor was there any evidence of sexual identity, i.e., the female was not obviously swollen with eggs. Shortly after sunset, the pair ascended in a broad, shallow arc off the bottom, traversing approximately 7 to 10 m while ascending to a height of 2 to 3 m. As the pair ascended, each angled its body slightly, with their venters in close proximity, if not actually touching. This position was held throughout the peak of the arc, with the pair diverging on the descent. Other pairs in the area were seen making similar arcing movements elsewhere on the reef at approximately the same time. It was difficult to see if there were gametes released in the event. There was no interference between pairs during spawning. Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).西大西洋: 美國的佛羅里達與巴哈馬到巴西。 也墨西哥灣與加勒比海, 包括安地列斯群島.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 外海的阿森松島 (參考文獻 7379) 與聖保羅岩礁.(參考文獻 13121)
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
渔业: 低经济; 水族馆: 商业性
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.6 °C (based on 410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04467 (0.02670 - 0.07472), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.21).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.9 [14.7, 47.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.792 [0.453, 1.323] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.17 [0.10, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.1 [7.7, 30.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.7 [7.5, 109.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.889 [0.561, 1.387] mg/100g (wet weight);