Pomacanthus paru, French angelfish : fisheries, aquarium

Pomacanthus paru (Bloch, 1787)

French angelfish
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Pomacanthus paru   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Acanthuriformes (Surgeonfishes) 鱸形目 (Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes) 刺蓋魚科 (Angelfishes)
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 3 - 100 m (Ref. 7379).   亞熱帶的; 30°N - 29°S, 98°W - 14°W

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Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bahamas to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: off Ascension Island (Ref. 7379) and St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
西大西洋: 美國的佛羅里達與巴哈馬到巴西, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 外海的阿森松島 (參考文獻 7379) 與聖保羅岩礁.(參考文獻 13121)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.1 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9626); common length : 28.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3797)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 10; 背的軟條 (總數): 29-31; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 22 - 24. Black, the scales of the body , except those at front from nape to abdomen, rimmed with golden yellow; a broad orange-yellow bar at pectoral absent; dorsal filament yellow; chin whitish; outer part of iris yellow; eye narrowly rimmed below with blue (Ref. 13442)
黑色,身體的鱗片,在從後頸到腹部的前面除了那些以外,邊金黃色的; 一條寬的橘黃色的橫帶在胸鰭不存在; 背部的絲狀突起黃色; 下巴微白色的; 虹膜黃色的外部部份; 狹窄地鑲邊在下面的眼有藍色的 (參考文獻 13442)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Common in shallow reefs. Usually in pairs, often near sea fans (Ref. 9710). Feed on sponges, algae, bryozoans, zoantharians, gorgonians and tunicates (Ref. 9626). Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Spawning pairs are strongly territorial, with usually both members vigorously defending their areas against neighboring pairs (Ref. 38726). Juveniles tend cleaning stations where they service a broad range of clients, including jacks, snappers, morays, grunts, surgeonfishes, and wrasses. At the station the cleaner displays a fluttering swimming and when cleaning it touches the clients with its pelvic fins (Ref. 40094). Flesh considered good quality; marketed fresh (Ref. 3797). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35419).

常見於淺水礁區。 通常成對, 時常在海扇的附近.(參考文獻 9710) 捕食海綿,藻類,苔蘚蟲類,六枚珊瑚,柳珊瑚與被囊類。 (參考文獻 9626) 卵生的 (參考文獻 240) ,一夫一妻的.(參考文獻 52884) 一對產卵的魚強烈具有領域性, 藉由通常兩者的成員強有力地防護對抗附近的對他們的區域。 (參考文獻 38726) 稚魚傾向清潔的區域客戶,包括鰺科魚類,笛鯛,海鰻,石鱸,刺尾魚與隆頭魚科的魚的在那裡它們服務大範圍。 在站清潔工顯示一擺動游泳而且當清潔它碰的時候,客戶用它的腹鰭.(參考文獻 40094) 肉被認為是好品質; 在市場上銷售生鮮地了。 (參考文獻 3797) 曾經後面在繁殖場.(參考文獻 35419)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

This species manifests apparent permanent pairing and monogamy. During most of the observation period, a single pair swam slowly in a side-to-side orientation at a height of 25 to 75 cm above the reef. No conspicuous courtship displays were evident, nor was there any evidence of sexual identity, i.e., the female was not obviously swollen with eggs. Shortly after sunset, the pair ascended in a broad, shallow arc off the bottom, traversing approximately 7 to 10 m while ascending to a height of 2 to 3 m. As the pair ascended, each angled its body slightly, with their venters in close proximity, if not actually touching. This position was held throughout the peak of the arc, with the pair diverging on the descent. Other pairs in the area were seen making similar arcing movements elsewhere on the reef at approximately the same time. It was difficult to see if there were gametes released in the event. There was no interference between pairs during spawning. Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).西大西洋: 美國的佛羅里達與巴哈馬到巴西, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 外海的阿森松島 (參考文獻 7379) 與聖保羅岩礁.(參考文獻 13121)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 08 October 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 30303)





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漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 商業性
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生態毒物學
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.6 °C (based on 410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04571 (0.02720 - 0.07681), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.21).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 25.9 [14.7, 47.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.792 [0.453, 1.323] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.17 [0.10, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.1 [7.7, 30.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.7 [7.5, 109.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.889 [0.561, 1.387] mg/100g (wet weight);