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Larvae Information Summary for  Chanos chanos
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Main Ref: Schuster, W.H. 1960
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 3.4 3.2 4 26505
Preanal L. % TL   2.6    
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Western Pacific (Philippines, Japan)
Yolk-sac elongated   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk segmented Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
At hatching, no eye pigmentation and no fin buds are present. Eye pigmentation start to appear 36 hours after hatching and completed at 54 hours. The mouth opened at 54 hours and soon became movable (mouth width was 500 µm). Long and straight gut reaches to about 80% of BL. Pigmentation: Black pigment cells are present in the finfold except the tip of the caudal region. Pigment is also scattered in the yolk mass and on the head and body of the larva (Ref. 139). The arrangement of muscle fibers in the myotomes of Chanos larvae is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body. Characteristic swimming behaviour: the larvae remains suspended head down in the water column near the surface, then sinks slowly, upon reaching a depth of about 5-8 cm, the larvae makes a sudden upward turn of 360° before swimming rapidly to the surface. This behaviour lasts mainly for two days. At this stage, larvae are slightly negatively bouyant (Ref. 43081).
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal compressed
Striking feature none
Shape of gut tube-like
Gas bladder   early visible late visible
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early unpigmented late unpigmented
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) without melanophores
Yolk is completely absorbed on the 3rd day. Eyes well pigmented. Functional mouth with an opening present. At flexion, body becomes transparent and stomach contents visible. Larvae (and adults) lack teeth. Pigmentation: Pigments scattered over the upper half of the body and on peritoneal wall. Mediolateral pigment on the caudal region proceeding anteriorly. Pigmentation on head region increases. Sequence of fin development: pectoral, caudal, dorsal and anal, pelvic.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres 47 44   43010
Preanal number of myomeres     32 139
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max 5.6 26505 Jan Feb Mar Apr
min 3.4 26505 May Jun Jul Aug
mod 4.5 26505 Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ease of identification:
likely to be confused with closely related species.
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 19.10.90
Modified by: Agbayani,Eli - 01.07.03
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