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Larvae Information Summary for  Etrumeus whiteheadi
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Main Ref: Olivar, M.P. and J.M. Fortuño 1991
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)        
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development  
Larval area Benguela Current Region
Yolk-sac ovoid   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk segmented Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Post larvae
Striking feature duck-billed shape of head
Striking shape lateral eel-like dorsal  
Striking feature duck-billed shape of head
Shape of gut tube-like
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early pigmented late unpigmented
Peritoneum with row of melanophores
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) without melanophores
Elongate body; body depth at the base of the pectoral fin is around 8% of SL throughout larval development. The gut is straight and extends to some 78% of SL in 4 mm-long larvae, to 87% of SL at 12 mm SL, and to some 81% of SL in large larvae longer than 20 mm SL. Head length increases over development, from 15% of SL in small larvae to 21% of SL at 12 mm and to 19% at 20 mm SL. The distance from snout to eye also increases with growth. The eyes become more elongate with development, eye diameter being some 5% of SL in small larvae and some 3% at 12 mm. The position of the origin of the dorsal fin advances as larval length approaches 20 mm SL.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 02.11.01
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