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References using Thymallus thymallus
Ref No. Description Page
000063  ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists,1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.
000312  Pauly, D.,1978 A preliminary compilation of fish length growth parameters. Ber. Inst. Meereskd. Christian-Albrechts-Univ. Kiel (55):1-200.
000556  Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlström,1968 Süßwasserfische. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München. 224 p. 76
000593  Berg, L.S.,1962 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948).
000683  Blanc, M., J.-L. Gaudet, P. Banarescu and J.-C. Hureau,1971 European inland water fish. A multilingual catalogue. Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London.
000719  Nikolskii, G.V.,1957 Spezielle Fischkunde. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. Berlin. 632 p.
001129  Mackay, D.,1970 Populations of trouts and graylings in two Scottish rivers. J. Fish Biol. 2(1):39-45.
001739  Welcomme, R.L.,1988 International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 294. 318 p.
001756  Nijssen, H. and S.J. de Groot,1974 Catalogue of fish species of the Netherlands. Beaufortia 21(285):173-207.
002059  Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl,1991 Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 1104 p. 1042
002163  Allardi, J. and P. Keith,1991 Atlas préliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France. Coll. Patrimoines Naturels, vol. 4. Secrétariat Faune Flore, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. 234 p.
002196  Spillman, C.-J.,1961 Faune de France: Poissons d'eau douce. Fédération Française des Sociétés Naturelles,Tome 65. Paris. 303 p. 65-66
004517  Hureau, J.-C.,1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
004537  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. 79
006114  Koli, L.,1990 Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland]. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Helsinki. 357 p. (in Finnish).
006178  Allendorf, F.W. and G.H. Thorgaard,1984 Tetraploidy and the evolution of Salmonid fishes. p. 1-53. In B.J. Turner (ed.) Evolutionary genetics of fishes. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
006179  Gold, J.R., W.J. Karel and M.R. Strand,1980 Chromosome formulae of North American fishes. Prog. Fish Cult. 42:10-23.
006258  Maitland, P.S. and R.N. Campbell,1992 Freshwater fishes of the British Isles. HarperCollins Publishers, London.368 p. 158-162
006274  Romakkaniemi, A.,1990 Tornion-Muonionjoen harjus ja harjuksen kalastus. (The grayling fishery in the River Tornion-Muonionjoki). Riista-ja kalatalouden tutkimuslaitos. Kalatutkimuksia 10. Helsinki, Finland. (Publication of the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute). (in Finnish).
006275  Huusko, A.,1990 Kuusinkijoen kalatalousselvitys. (Study on the fisheries of the River Kuusinkijoki). Riista-ja kalatalouden tutkimuslaitos. Kalatutkimuksia 14. Helsinki, Finland. (Publication of the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute). (in Finnish).
006313  Grabda, E. and T. Heese,1991 Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p. (in Polish).
006320  Kallio-Nyberg, I. and M.-L. Koljonen,1990 Kalakantarekisteri: siika, muikku ja harjus. (Fish stock register: whitefish, vendace and grayling.). Riista-ja kalatalouden tutkimuslaitos. Kalatutkimuksia-Fiskundersökningar, no:4. Yliopistopaino. Helsinki, Finland. 55 p. (Publication of the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute.) (in Finnish).
006334  Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute,1993 Kalanviljely vuonna 1992. (Fish Culture in 1992). Riista-ja Kalatalouden Tutkimuslaitos. Ympäristö 1993:3.
006375  Holcík, J.,1991 Fish introductions in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48 (Suppl. 1):13-23.
007442  Eschmeyer, W.N.,1996 PISCES. The information in FishBase was derived by comparing FishBase with a preliminary version 2.0 of Eschmeyer's PISCES database, published on the Internet in November 1996, URL:gopher://
008973  Vasil'ev, V.P.,1980 Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38. 4
008984  FAO,1994 FAO Yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 74: 1992. FAO Fish. Ser. 43:677 p.
009498  Keresztessy, K.,1993 A magyar halfjok védettségének új szabályosása. Halászat 86(3):114-116. (in Hungarian). 114
009696  Vostradovsky, J.,1973 Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. 252 p. 122
009945  Frier, J.-O.,1994 Danmark. Danske ferskvandsfisk og deres udbredelsesområde. p. 4-6, 83-99. In J.-O. Frier (ed.) Truede ferskvandsfiskearter i Norden. TemaNord 1994:625. Nordisk Ministerråd, København. (in Danish). 86
009946  Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlstrøm,1990 Europas ferskvandsfisk. GEC Gads Forlag, København. 224p. (in Danish). 76-77
009953  Sokolov, L.I. and L.S. Berdicheskii,1989 Acipenseridae. p. 150-153. In J. Holcík (ed.) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 1, Part II. General introduction to fishes Acipenseriformes. AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden. 469 p. 60
010963  Landbrugs -og Fiskeriministeriet,1995 Fiskeriårbogen 1996. Årbog for den danske fiskerflåde. Fiskeriårbogens Forlag ved Iver C. Weilbach & Co A/S, Toldbodgade 35, Postbox 1560, DK-1253 København K, Denmark. p 333-338, 388, 389 (in Danish). 388-389
011941  Keith, P., J. Allardi and B. Moutou,1992 Livre rouge des espèces menacées de poissons d'eau douce de France et bilan des introductions. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, Secrétariat de la Faune et de la Flore, Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, CEMAGREF and Ministère de l'Environment, 111 p. 43
012255  Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge (eds.),1996 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 378 p.
012818  Anonymous,1997 Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.
013141  Al-Sabti, K.,1984 Using the in vitro colchicine treatment for the chromosome studies of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the grayling (Thymallus thymallus). Acta Biol.-Iugosl. E Ichthyol. 16(1-2):17-22.
013435  Scott, A.,1985 Distribution, growth, and feeding of postemergent grayling Thymallus thymallus in an English river. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114(4):525-531.
013614  Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl,1997 Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 1148 p. 1107
013696  Kottelat, M.,1997 European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. 156
013729  Amori, G., F.M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini and G. Vicini,1993 Vertebrata. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo and S. La Posta (eds.) Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 110. Calderini, Bologna, 83 p.
026334  Reshetnikov, Y.S., N.G. Bogutskaya, E.D. Vasil'eva, E.A. Dorofeeva, A.M. Naseka, O.A. Popova, K.A. Savvaitova, V.G. Sideleva and L.I. Sokolov,1997 An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol. 37(9):687-736. 697
026388  Sanches, J.G.,1989 Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalização estatística). Publ. Avuls. Inst. Nac. Invest. Pescas 14:322 p. 93
027118  Gandolfi, G., S. Zerunian, P. Torricelli and A. Marconato (eds.),1991 I pesci delle acque interne italiane. Ministero dell'Ambiente e Unione Zoologica Italiana. Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma. 616 p.
027368  Gerstmeier, R. and T. Romig,1998 Die Süßwasserfische Europas: für Naturfreunde und Angler. Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. 368 p. 121
029975  Severin, S.O.,1979 The chromosome set of the European grayling Thymallus thymallus (L.). Vopr. Ikhtiol. 19(2):246-250.
029978  Severin, S.O.,1986 Divergence of graylings (the genus Thymallus Cuvier, 1829) on the basis of karyological data. Zool. Zh . 65(8):1190-1198.
030090  Ohno, S.,1974 Protochordata, Cyclostomata and Pisces. In B. John (ed) Animal Cytogenetics. Vol 4, Chordata 1. 8:92p. Berlin-Stuttgart.
030105  Svardson, G.,1945 Chromosome studies on Salmonidae. Rep. Swed. State Ins. Fish Res. 23:1-51. Drottingholm.
030184  Arkhipchuk, V.V.,1999 Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.
030402  Kullander, S.O.,1999 Swedish fishes: checklist of Swedish fishes. Swedish Museum of Natural History., 25 May 1999.
030503  Rass, T.S.,1983 Fish. Vol. 4, Life of animals. V.E. Sokolov (ed.), Moscow: Prosveschenie. 575p.
030578  Billard, R.,1997 Les poissons d'eau douce des rivières de France. Identification, inventaire et répartition des 83 espèces. Lausanne, Delachaux & Niestlé, 192p. 11
031402  Swedish Museum of Natural History,1999 Fish collection database of the Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History). Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
032722  Bervoets, L., J. Coeck and R.F. Verheyen,1990 The value of lowland rivers for the conservation of rare fish in Flanders. J. Fish Biol. 37(Suppl.A):223-224. 223
032911  Haugen, T.O. and T.A. Rygg,1996 Food- and habitat-segregation in sympatric grayling and brown trout. J. Fish Biol. 49(2):301-318. 310;tabV
033247  Anonymous,1999 Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000.
033337  Anonymous,2000 Systematisk liste over norske fisk registert pr. 1997. 6
033725  Severin, S.O.,1985 Karyological analysis of three populations of grayling, Thymallus thymallus, in the Kama Basin. J. Ichthyol. 25(6):135-146. 135-146
033796  Ndoc, R. and A. Flloko,1995 Iktiofauna e Shqiperise. Shtepia botuese "Libri Universitar", Tirana, Albania.
034370  Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven,1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften. 111,112
034730  Kalat, M., B. Mayr, P. Ráb and W. Schelger,1988 Heterochromatin studies and localization of NORs in European grayling (Thymallus thymallus, Pisces, Thymallidae). Caryologia 41:245-249.
034926  Nygren, A., B. Nilsson and M. Jahnke,1971 Cytological studies in Thymallus thymallus and Coregonus albula. Hereditas 67:269-274.
035508  Anonymous,2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
036252  Winkler, H.M., K. Skora, R. Repecka, M. Ploks, A. Neelov, L. Urho, A. Gushin and H. Jespersen,2000 Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. ICES CM 2000/Mini:11, 15 p.
037297  Mikhov, S.,2000 Checklist of fishes of Bulgaria. FishBase checklist modified by Stoyan Mikhov.
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
039150  Banarescu, P.,1964 Pisces - Osteichthyes (pesti ganoizi si osisi). Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucuresti. 962 p.
039223  Bakardjiev, I. (comp.),2001 List of Bulgarian common names. Pers. comm.
039227  Kristo, R.,2001 List of freshwater, brackish and marine common names of Albania. Personal communication.
040476  Keith, P. and J. Allardi (coords.),2001 Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France. Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. Patrimoines naturels, 47:1-387. 260-263
040637  IGFA,2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.
040919  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
041386  Lusk, S. and L. Hanel,2000 The Red List of lampreys and fishes in the Czech Republic - Version 2000. Biodiverzita ichtyofauny CR(III):5-13. 9
041414  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
041851  Spratte, S and U. Hartmann,1998 Fischartenkataster: Süßwasserfische und Neunaugen in Schleswig-Holstein. Ministerium für ländliche Räume, Landwirtschaft, Ernährung und Tourismus, Kiel Germany. 183 p. 118
042125  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria BC, Canada V8V 1X4.
043202  Andriyashev, A.P. and N.V. Chernova,1995 Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the Arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123. 93
045043  Bogutskaya, N.G.,2002 Common names of Russian freshwater fishes. Spreadsheet with cyrillic names made available for inclusion in FishBase. Unpublished.
045250  Baruš, V. and O. Oliva (eds.),1995 Mihulovci a ryby. Fauna R a SR. (Cyclostomata and fishes. Fauna of Czech Republic and Slovakia). sv. 28 Academia Praha.
047438  Anonymous,2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
048321  Ricker, W.E.,1973 Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 269
050359  Anonymous,1994 Welsh names of animals and plants: I Vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. p.17-26. In W.B.L. Evans (ed.) Cyfres enwan (creaduriaid a phlauhigion: I creaduriaid asgwrn-cefn pysgod, amffibiaid, ymlusgiaid, adar a mamaliaid. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd. 17
051471  Carl, H.,2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
052093  Ojaveer, E., E. Pihu and T. Saat,2003 Fishes of Estonia. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn. 416 p. 136
052149  Lusk, S., L. Hanel and V. Lusková,2004 Red list of the ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic: Development and present status. Folia Zool. 53(2):215-226. 220
054731  Hanel, L.,2003 Komentovaný přehled mihulí a ryb české republiky. Bull. Lampetra V:27-67. 53
054732  Hanel, L.,2003 The ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic: development and present state. Matthias Belivs Univ. Proc. 3(1):41-71. 60
055893  Plikss, M.,2002 Fish of Latvia. Accessed 24/11/05.
056616  Iacob, L. and I. Dima,2006 Regnul Animalia. Eukarya. Enciclopedia Florei si Faunei din Romania.
056631  Machacek, H. (ed.),2006 World Records Freshwater Fishing., 12 February 2006.
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
058297  Bogutskaya, N.G. and A.M. Naseka,2002 REGIONAL CHECK-LISTS: Volga River Drainage Area. In Website and Database: "Freshwater Fishes of Russia": A Source of Information on the Current State of the Fauna. Zoological Institute RAS.
059043  Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof,2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. 459
074334  Keith, P. and J. Allardi,1996 Endangered freshwater fish: the situation in France. p. 35-54. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 37
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
075612  Witkowski, A., J. Blachuta, B. Kokurewicz and M. Kowalewski,1989 Changes of gonadosomatic intex (GSI) and egg diameter in the grayling Thymallus thymallus (L.) in annual cycle. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 19(2):21-28.
081828  Machacek, H. (ed.),2009 World Records Freshwater Fishing., June 2009.
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
087029  Dhora, Dh.,2008 Fjalor i emrave të kafshëve të Shqipërisë (Emri shkencor - Shqip - Anglisht) / Dictionary of animal names of Albania (Scientific names - Albanian - English). Camaj - Pipa. Shkodër, Albania. pp. 288.
087703  AFMAFEWM (Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management),2011 Checklist of species in Austria. Federal Office for Water Management, Institute of Waters Ecology, Fisheries and Lake Research.
088808  Teletchea, F., A. Fostier, E. Kamler, J-N. Gardeur, P-Y. Le Bail, B. Jalabert and P. Fontaine,2009 Comparative analysis of reproductive traits in 65 freshwater fish species: application to the domestication of new fish species. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 19:403-430. 412
090052  Maitland, P.S. and A.A. Lyle,1996 Threatened freshwater fishes of Great Britain. p. 9-21. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 10
090058  Holčik, J.,1996 Vanishing freshwater fish species of Slovakia. p. 79-86. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 83
090060  Lusk, S.,1996 The status of the fish fauna in the Czech Republic. p. 89-98. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 93
090061  Povz, M.,1996 The red data list of the freshwater lampreys (Cyclostomata) and fish (Pisces) of Slovenia. p. 63-72. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 66
090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
093382  Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.),2013 Catalog of fishes. Updated internet version of 30 April 2013. Catalog databases of CAS cited in FishBase (website).
094493  Bianco, P.G.,2014 An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30(1):62-77.
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
105472  Pihu, E.,1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad. Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
116654  Saks, L.,2017 Estonian Common Names, Rank 2. Personal communication
118272  FAO-FIES,2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
121814  Blanck, A. and N. Lamouroux,2007 Large-scale intraspecific variation in life-history traits of European freshwater fish. J. Biogeo. U. Biogeogr. 34:862-875. 864
122793  Tammiksaar, E. and K. Kangur,2020 Fish and fishing in Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia) since 1851: Similarities and differences between historical and modern times J. Great Lakes Res. 46(2020):862-869. 867;tab.1
124011  Dolgov, A.V.,2013 Annotated list of fish-like vertebrates and fish of the Kara Sea. J. Ichthyol. 53(11):914-922. 916
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