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References using Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Ref No. Description Page
000273  Nigrelli, R.F.,1959 Longevity of fishes in captivity, with special reference to those kept in the New York Aquarium. p. 212-230. In G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen and M. O'Connor (eds.) Ciba Foundation Colloquium on Ageing: the life span of animals. Vol. 5., Churchill, London.
000276  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1980 A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174. 39
001739  Welcomme, R.L.,1988 International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 294. 318 p. 228-229
001836  Pauly, D.,1979 Gill size and temperature as governing factors in fish growth: a generalization of von Bertalanffy's growth formula. Berichte des Instituts für Meereskunde an der Christian-Albrechts Universität Kiel, (63). 156 p.
001873  Walter, H. and H. Lieth,1967 Klimadiagramm Weltatlas. VEB Gustaf Fischer Verlag, Jena.
001883  Carlander, K.D.,1950 Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 427 p.
001998  Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman,1973 Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184: xi+1-966. 745-749
003377  Stroud, R.H.,1948 Growth of the basses and black crappie in Norris Reservoir, Tennessee. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 23(1):31-99.
003527  Carlander, K.D.,1953 First supplement to the Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa. p. 277-429.
003541  Erickson, J.G.,1952 Age and growth of the black and white crappies, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (LeSueur) and P. annularis Rafinesque, in Clear Lake, Iowa. Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 26(3):491-505.
003774  Swingle, W.E.,1965 Length-weight relationships of Alabama fishes. Auburn Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Zool.-Ent. Ser. Fish. 3:87 p.
003814  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1991 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p.
003856  Lewis, W.M.,1950 Fisheries investigations on two artificial lakes in southern Iowa. II. Fish populations. Iowa State J. Sci. 24(3):287-324.
003868  Shields, J.T.,1955 Report of fisheries investigations during the second year of impoundment of Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, 1954. S.D. Dept. Game Fish Parks. 100 p. mimeo.
003993  Carlander, K.D.,1977 Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, volume 2. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
004001  Bennett, D.H.,1972 Length-weight relationships and condition factors of fishes from a South Carolina reservoir receiving thermal effluent. Prog. Fish-Cult. 34:85-87.
004002  Cooper, E.L., C.C. Wagner and G.E. Krantz,1971 Bluegills dominate production in mixed populations of fishes. Ecology 52(2):280-290.
004014  Hennemuth, R.C.,1955 Growth of crappies, bluegill, and warmouth in Lake Ahquabi. Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 30(1):119-137.
004018  Jenkin, R.M.,1955 Expansion of the crappie population in Ardmore City Lake following a drastic reduction in numbers. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 36:70-76.
004020  Jenkins, R.M.,1957 The effect of gizzard shad on the fish population of a small Oklahoma lake. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 85(1):58-74.
004023  Jennings, T.,1969 Age and growth of black crappie in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Iowa Q. Biol. Rep. 21(4):60-64.
004030  Nelson, W.R.,1974 Age, growth and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-1968. U.S. Fish, Wildl. Serv. Tech. Pap. 77:1-29.
004033  Paragamian, V.L.,1974 Vital statistics of fish populations in Red Rock Reservoir and Rathbun Reservoir following initial impoundment. Iowa Conserv. Comm. Fed. Aid F-88-R-1, Study No. 702-703, Job 1:1-46.
004046  Tucker, W.H.,1973 Food habits, growth and length-weight relationships of the young-of-the-year black crappie and largemouth bass in ponds. Proc. S.E. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 26:565-577.
004049  Vanderpuye, C.J. and K.D. Carlander,1971 Age, growth and condition of black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (LeSueur) in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota, 1954 to 1967. Iowa State J. Sci. 45(4):541-555.
004517  Hureau, J.-C.,1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
004699  International Game Fish Association,1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA.
005723  Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr,1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. 259,401
006094  Chiba, K., Y. Taki, K. Sakai and Y. Oozeki,1989 Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. p. 63-70. In S.S. De Silva (ed.) Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc. 3, 154 p. 67
006447  Contreras-Balderas, S. and M.A. Escalante-C.,1984 Distribution and known impacts of exotic fishes in Mexico. p. 102-130. In W.R. Courtenay, Jr. and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.) Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
008938  Gyldenholm, A.O. and J.J. Scheel,1974 Chromosome numbers of fishes. I. p. 90-97. In J.P. Wourms, D.E. Semler, J.V. Merriner Genetic studies of fish:II. MSS Information Corporation, New York.
008950  Roberts, F.L.,1964 A chromosome study of twenty species of Centrarchidae. J. Morph. 115:401-418.
008973  Vasil'ev, V.P.,1980 Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38. 20
009183  Newman, L.,1995 Census of fish at the Vancouver aquarium, 1994. Unpublished manuscript.
009672  Turner, J.L.,1966 Distribution and food habits of centrarchid fishes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. p. 144-153. In J.L. Turner and D.W. Kelly (comp.) Ecological studies of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Part II Fishes of the Delta, Fish. Bull. 136.
010294  Etnier, D.A. and W.C. Starnes,1993 The fishes of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. (pls. check date). 438-439
010525  Urley, L., C. Risk and W. Scott,1938 The number of eggs produced by some of our common fresh-water fishes. Invest. Indiana Lakes Streams 1(6):73-77. 73-77
010527  Bailey, R.M.,1951 A check-list of the fishes of Iowa with keys for identification. p. 185-237. In J.R. Harlan and E.B. Speaker (eds.) Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa State Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 365 p. 194
010882  McPhail, J.D. and R. Carveth,1993 Field key to the freshwater fishes of British Columbia. Fish Museum, Department of Zoology, U.B.C., Canada, 239 p. 31,66
010937  Anonymous,1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
011382  Carl, G.C., W.A. Clemens and C.C. Lindsey,1959 The fresh-water fishes of British Columbia (3rd edition revised). Victoria (British Columbia, Canada): British Columbia Provincial Museum. Department of Education, Handbook 5: 192 p. 155-6
012193  Hugg, D.O.,1996 MAPFISH georeferenced mapping database. Freshwater and estuarine fishes of North America. Life Science Software. Dennis O. and Steven Hugg, 1278 Turkey Point Road, Edgewater, Maryland, USA.
012204  Coad, B.W.,1995 Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore.
012741  Eaton, J.G., J.H. McCormick, B.E. Goodno, D.G. O'Brien, H.G. Stefany, M. Hondzo and R.M. Scheller,1995 A field information-based system for estimating fish temperature tolerances. Fisheries 20(4):10-18. 14
026388  Sanches, J.G.,1989 Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalização estatística). Publ. Avuls. Inst. Nac. Invest. Pescas 14:322 p. 16
030184  Arkhipchuk, V.V.,1999 Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.
030426  Randolph, S. and M. Snyder,1993 The seafood list: FDA's guide to acceptable market names for seafood sold in interstate commerce. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, USA. pag. var. 6
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
034370  Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven,1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften. 142
034634  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.
035360  Davis, J.R. and D.E. Louder,1969 Life history and ecology of Menidia extensa. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 98:466-472. 468
036670  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
039104  Trautman, M.B.,1957 The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press. 683 p.
040637  IGFA,2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.
041414  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
042125  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria BC, Canada V8V 1X4.
042273  Gu, B., C.L. Schelske and M.V. Hoyer,1996 Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as indicators of diet and trophic structure of the fish community in a shallow hypereutrophic lake. J. Fish Biol. 49(6):1233-1243. 1239
046649  Timmons, T.J., W.L. Shelton and W.D. Davies,1981 Food of largemouth bass before and during the first three years after impoundment of west point reservoir, Alabama abd Georgia. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. 56(1):23-27. 25
046974  Quinn, S.,2001 How long do fish live?. In-Fisherman 26(5):15.
047438  Anonymous,2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
048321  Ricker, W.E.,1973 Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 114
050685  Flemer, D.A. and W.S. Woolcott,1966 Food habits and distribution of the fishes of Tuckahoe Creek, Virginia, with special emphasis on the bluegill, Lepomis m. macrochirus Rafinesque. Chesapeake Sci. 7(2):75-89. 83
051471  Carl, H.,2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
052299  Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea and J.D. Williams,2004 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. ix, 386 p. + 1 CD. 131
052559  Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns,2001 Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2554:iv+89p. 31,88
053249  Rixon, C.A.M., I.C. Duggan, N.M.N. Bergeron, A. Ricciardi and H.J. Macisaac,2005 Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biodivers. Conserv. 14:1365-1381. 9
054724  Jenkins, R.E. and N.M. Burkhead,1993 Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 1079 p.
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
058462  Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.),2007 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of June 2007. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in June 2007.
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
078789  Missouri Department of Conservation,2008 Fish of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation.
078807  Lieb, C.S.,2000 Annotated checklist of the fishes of the Rio Grande drainage, Dona Ana, El Paso, and Hudspeth counties. Centennial Museum, University of Texas at El Paso. 9
078809  Richardson, J.S., T.J. Lissimore, M.C. Healey and T.G. Northcote,2000 Fish communities of the lower Fraser River (Canada) and a 21-year contrast. Environ. Biol. Fishes 59:125-140. 140
079012  Hassan-Williams, C., T.H. Bonner and C. Thomas (photogr.),2007 Texas freshwater fishes. Texas State University-San Marcos: Biology Department/ Aquatic Station.
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
086798  Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr,2011 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. 487
090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
093240  Gross, M.R. and R.C. Sargent,1985 The evolution of male and female parental care in fishes. Am. Zool. 25(3):807-822. 817
093252  Murdy, E.O. and J.A. Musick,2013 Field guide to fishes of the Chesapeake Bay. JHU Press, 360 p. 258-259;Drawing
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
105472  Pihu, E.,1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad. Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
112251  Taylor, E.B. and K. Tan,2016 Guide to the freshwater fishes of British Columbia. 1st edit. Vancouver (BC, Canada): Beaty Biodiversity Museum, 18 p. 17; Photo color
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
118272  FAO-FIES,2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
120331  Fisheries and Oceans Canada,2000 Survey of recreational fishing in Canada. Selected Results for the Great Lakes Fishery 2000. Economic Analysis and Statistics, Policy Sector, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. (3/2019)
120333  Ontario Commercial Fisheries’ Association,2019 Fisheries Statistics. Accessed 4/2019
120594  Eakins, R.J.,2019 Black crappie. Ontario Freshwater Fishes Life History Database. Version 4.85. Online database. (;, accessed 25 June 2019.
120640  Fuller, P., M. Cannister and M. Neilson,2019 Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829). U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, Accessed on 7/4/2019.
120821  Pennsylvania Fish & Boat Commission,2019 Sunfishes. Accessed 17 August 2019.
120880  Van Meter, H.D. and M.B. Trautman,1970 An annotated list of the fishes of Lake Erie and its tributary waters exclusive of the Detroit River. The Ohio Journal of Science 70(2):65-78
121624  CAB International,2020 Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie). Accessed on 25 January 2020.
121687  Fuller, P., M. Cannister and M. Neilson,2020 Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL., Revision Date: 8/28/2019, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 2/5/2020
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