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References using Muraena helena
Ref No. Description Page
000065  Bertolini, F., U. D'Ancona, E. Padoa Montalenti, S. Ranzi, L. Sanzo, A. Sparta, E. Tortonese and M. Vialli,1956 Uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo Napoli Monogr. 38:1-1064.
000069  Marinaro, J.Y.,1971 Contribution à l'étude des oeufs et larves pélagiques de poissons Méditerranéens. V. Oeufs pélagiques de la Baie d'Alger. Bull. Inst. Océanogr. 3(1):1-118. 1-118
000076  Papasissi, C.,1989 A contribution to the study of the biology of the ichthyoplankton in the Gulf of Kissamos (N.W. Crete, Greece). Thesis. 300 p.
000240  Thresher, R.E.,1984 Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Neptune City, New Jersey. 399 p. 12-20
000273  Nigrelli, R.F.,1959 Longevity of fishes in captivity, with special reference to those kept in the New York Aquarium. p. 212-230. In G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen and M. O'Connor (eds.) Ciba Foundation Colloquium on Ageing: the life span of animals. Vol. 5., Churchill, London.
001652  Linnaeus, C.,1758 Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 824 p. 244
002683  Schneider, W.,1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p.
003256  Bauchot, M.-L.,1986 Muraenidae. p. 537-544. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 2. UNESCO, Paris. 543-544
003383  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,1990 Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products. Fishing News Books, Oxford.
003397  Bauchot, M.-L.,1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
003804  Dalzell, P., S.R. Lindsay and H. Patiale,1991 Fisheries resources survey of the Island of Niue. Tech. Doc. Inshore Fish. Res. Proj. S. Pac. Comm 3. A report prepared in conjunction with the South Pacific Commission Inshore Fisheries Research Project, and the FAO South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project for the Government of Niue, July 1990.
004450  Smith, D.G. and E.B. Böhlke,1990 Muraenidae. p. 136-148. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. 145-146
004517  Hureau, J.-C.,1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
004537  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. 28
004690  Halstead, B.W., P.S. Auerbach and D.R. Campbell,1990 A colour atlas of dangerous marine animals. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd, W.S. Cowell Ltd, Ipswich, England. 192 p.
004716  Halstead, B.W.,1980 Dangerous marine animals. Cornell Maritime Press, Inc., Maryland, U.S.A.
005204  Wheeler, A.,1992 A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37.
005969  Kotlyar, A.N.,1984 Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow. 288 p. 47
006313  Grabda, E. and T. Heese,1991 Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p. (in Polish).
009057  Economidis, P.S.,1973 Catalogue of the fishes of Greece. Reprinted from Hellenic Oceanology and Limnology, Praktika of the Inst. of Ocean. and Fishing Research, vol. 11 (1972).
009987  Frimodt, C.,1995 Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial warmwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p. 121
012140  Swaby, S.E. and G.W. Potts,1990 Rare British marine fishes - identification and conservation. J. Fish Biol. 37(Suppl.A):133-143. 141
012382  Göthel, H.,1992 Fauna marina del Mediterráneo. Ediciones Omega, S.A., Barcelona. 319 p. 240
013729  Amori, G., F.M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini and G. Vicini,1993 Vertebrata. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo and S. La Posta (eds.) Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 110. Calderini, Bologna, 83 p.
026335  Costa, F.,1991 Atlante dei pesci dei mari italiani. Gruppo Ugo Mursia Editore S.p.A. Milano, Italy. 438 p. 173
026388  Sanches, J.G.,1989 Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalização estatística). Publ. Avuls. Inst. Nac. Invest. Pescas 14:322 p. 80
026999  Sanches, J.G.,1991 Catálogo dos principais peixes marinhos da República de Guiné-Bissau. Publ. Avuls. Inst. Nac. Invest. Pescas 16:429 p. 68
027000  Reiner, F.,1996 Catálogo dos peixes do arquipélago de Cabo Verde. Publ. Avuls. Inst. Port. Invest. Mar. 2:339 p. 56
031402  Swedish Museum of Natural History,1999 Fish collection database of the Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History). Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
031411  Ganaden, S.R. and F. Lavapie-Gonzales,1999 Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines. 385 p. 320
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031522  Gibbons, S.,1999 Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London and Ringwood. 418 p.
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
032169  Fishelson, L.,1992 Comparative gonad morphology and sexuality of the Muraenidae (Pisces, Teleostei). Copeia 1992(1):197-209. 197
033798  Soljan, T.,1975 I pesci dell'Adriatico. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Verona, Italy.
033971  Lanfranco, G.G.,1996 The fish around Malta (Central Mediterranean). Progress Press Co. Ltd. (Malta). 132 p. 16-17
034370  Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven,1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften. 40
034496  Cau, A., S. Salvadori, A.M. Deiana, J.L. Bella and R. Mezzanotte,1988 The characterization of Muraena helena L. mitotic chromosomes: karyotype, C-banding, nucleolar organizer regions and in situ digestion with restriction endonucleases. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 47:223-226.
035117  Alegre, M., J. Lleonart and J. Veny,1992 Espècies pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Departament de Cultura, Generalitat Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. 17
035508  Anonymous,2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
035509  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the Intitut fur Seefischerei (ISH). BIOLAB Forschungsinstitut, Hohenwestedt, Germany.
036670  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
039531  Crespo, J., J. Gajate and R. Ponce,2001 Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain. 414 p. 88
041234  Böhlke, E.B. and J.E. McCosker,2001 The moray eels of Australia and New Zealand, with description of two new species (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae). Rec. Aust. Mus. 53(1):71-102. 96
041414  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
041474  Economidis, P.S.,2001 Common names of Hellenic marine fishes. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
041475  Economidis, P.S. and E. Koutrakis,2001 Common names of comercially important Hellenic marine organisms. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
041476  Deval, M.C.,2002 Common names of marine fishes of Turkey. Unpublished report. 26
043256  Castle, P.H.J.,1984 Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes: development. p. 62-102. In American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Ontogeny and systematics of fishes, based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of E.H. Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. (1):1-760. 62-102
043402  Nunes, A.,1953 Peixes da Madeira. Edição da Junta Geral do distrito Autón.
045163  Granzotto, A.,2003 List of common Italian names. Personal communication (Excel file).
048321  Ricker, W.E.,1973 Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 149
048500  Luther, W. and K. Fiedler,2002 Guida della fauna marina costiera del Mediterraneo. Atlante illustrato a colori. Franco Muzzio & C. (editore), Roma. 244p.
048657  Papaconstantinou, C.,1988 Check-list of marine fishes of Greece. Fauna Graeciae IV, 257 p. 63
050345  Quignard, J.P. and J.A. Tomasini,2000 Mediterranean fish biodiversity. Biol. Mar. Mediterr. 7(3):1-66. 45
050675  Louisy, P.,2001 Guide d'identification des poissons marins. Europe et Méditerranée. Paris: Eds. Eugène Ulmer. 317
051054  Hanel, L. and J. Novák,2001 ?eské názvy zivo?ich? V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces) II., nozdratí (Sarcopterygii), paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) [chrupav?ití (Chondrostei), kostnatí (Neopterygii): kostlíni (Semionotiformes) - bezostní (Clupeiformes)]. Národní muzeum (zoologické odd?leí), Praha.
051471  Carl, H.,2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
054735  Wheeler, A.C., N.R. Merrett and D.T.G. Quigley,2004 Additional records and notes for Wheeler's (1992) List of the Common and Scientific Names of Fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 65(Suppl.B):1-40. 6
055783  Mohamed Fall, K.O.,2005 Fishes of Mauritania. Unpublished compilation of K.O. Mohamed Fall.
057855  Bilecenoglu, M., Taskavak E., S. Mater and M. Kaya,2002 Checklist of the marine fishes of Turkey. Zootaxa (113):1-194. 31
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
058342  Fricke, R., M. Bilecenoglu and H.M. Sari,2007 Annotated checklist of fish and lamprey species (Gnathostoma and Petromyzontomorphi) of Turkey, including a Red List of threatened and declining species. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Sea A (706):1-172. 123
058348  Jiménez, S., S. Schönhuth, I.J. Lozano, J.A. González, R.G. Sevilla, A. Diez and J.M. Bautista,2007 Morphological, ecological, and molecular analyses separate Muraena augusti from Mureana helena as a valid species. Copeia 2007(1):101-113.
058723  Plejic, T.,2007 Fische der Adria. Das romanische Element in der kroatischen Ichthyofauna. Mit Glossar der Adriafische Kroatisch-Englisch-Deutsch-Italienisch. Diploma Thesis. University of Leipzig Institute of Applied Linguistics and Translational Studies.
074541  Wirtz, P., R. Fricke and M.J. Biscoito,2008 The coastal fishes of Madeira Island - new records and an annotated check-list. Zootaxa 1715:1-26. 6
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
080565  Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.),2009 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2009. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2009.
082057  Ministero Delle Politiche Agricole Alimantari e Forestali,2008 Elenco delle denominazioni in lingua Italiana: Delle specieittiche di interesse commerciale. Gazzetta Ufficiale Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale N. 45. 12
082533  Djabali, F., B. Brahmi and M. Mammasse,1993 Poissons des Côtes Algériennes. Pelagos, Bulletin de I'Ismal (Bulletin de l'Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du Littoral). Numéro special 215 p.
083428  Dhora, Dh.,2010 Regjistër I specieve të faunës së Shqipërisë 2010. Shkodër: Camaj-Pipa. 208 p. 147
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
084159  Golani, D. and S. V. Bogorodsky,2010 The fishes of the Red Sea - reappraisal and updated checklist. Zootaxa 2463:1-135. 10
084529  Blache, J., M.-L. Bauchot and L. Saldanha,1979 Muraenidae. p. 224-227. In J.C. Hureau and Th. Monod (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. 224
086578  Bañon, R., D. Villegas-Ríos, A. Serrano, G. Mucientes and J.C. Arronte,2010 Marine fishes from Galicia (NW Spain): an updated checklist. Zootaxa 2667:1-27. 6
086790  Böhlke, E.B. and D.G. Smith,2002 Type catalogue of Indo-Pacific Muraenidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 152:89-172. 95
087029  Dhora, Dh.,2008 Fjalor i emrave të kafshëve të Shqipërisë (Emri shkencor - Shqip - Anglisht) / Dictionary of animal names of Albania (Scientific names - Albanian - English). Camaj - Pipa. Shkodër, Albania. pp. 288.
087676  Saad, A.,2005 Check-list of bony fish collected from the coast of Syria. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 5:99-106. 101
088082  Torcu, H., Z. Aka and ??b?l?r,2001 An investigation on fishes of the Turkish Republic of northern Cyprus. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 25: 155-159. 156
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090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
094080  Wirtz, P., A. Brito, J.M. Falcón, R. Freitas, R. Fricke, V. Monteiro, F. Reiner and O. Tariche,2013 The coastal fishes of the Cape Verde Islands - new records and an annotated check-list. Spixiana 36(1):113-142. 118
094543  Miniconi, R. and Parc naturel régional de la Corse,1980 Parc naturel régional de Corse : poissons de Corse et de Méditerranée. Ajaccio: Parc naturel régional de la Corse; [Clermont-Ferrand] : Atelier de recherche des parcs pour l'expression graphique et l'édition, 116 p. 56-57;45;Drawing
095232  Ferreira, S., R. Sousa, J. Delgado, D. Carvalho and T. Chada,2008 Weight-length relationships for demersal fish species caught off the Madeira archipelago (eastern-central Atlantic). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 24:93-95. 94
095489  Goren, M.,2014 The fishes of the Mediterranean: a biota under siege. pp. 385-400. In Goffredo, S. and Z. Dubinsky. 2014. The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer Netherlands. 655 pp. 390
095541  FAO EastMed Project,2013 Species identification plates, Arabic/Egyptian/English version 2013. FAO EastMed Project
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
095727  Lloris, D., J. Rucabado, Ll. del Cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre and A. Roig,1984 Tots els peixos del Mar Català. I: Llistat de cites I referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp. 1:1-208.
095773  Francour, P., P. Bodilis, J.M. Cottalorda and C. Seytre,2010 Inventaire des Gobiidae dans la réserve naturelle de Scandola (Corse) et à proximité de ses limites. Contrat Parc Naturel Régional de la Corse. Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, ECOMERS publ., Nice:1-54. 28
095871  Psomadakis, P.N., S. Giustino and M. Vacchi,2012 Mediterranean fish biodiversity: an updated inventory with focus on the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian seas. Zootaxa 3263:1-46. 30
096325  Miniconi, R.,2011 Complément á l'inventaire des poissons des eaux de Corse (1994-2011). Biologie - P?che - Localisation. Edition A Barcella Ajaccio, 50 p. 46
098745  Mati?-Skoko, S., P. Tutman, M. Petri?, D. Skaramuca, D. ?ikic, D. Lisi?i? and B. Skaramuca,2011 Mediterranean moray eel Muraena helena (Pisces: Muraenidae): biological indices for life history. Aquat. Biol. 13:275-284. 275-284
100713  de Leiva, I., C. Busuttil, M. Darmanin and m. Camilleri,1998 Artisanal fisheries in the western Mediterranean- Malta fisheries. Copemed - FAO Sub-regional project, Malta, 21p.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
105472  Pihu, E.,1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad. Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
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109027  Sallami, B., P. Béarez and M. Ben Salem,2016 Age and growth of Muraena helena (Muraenidae) from the north coast of Tunisia. Cybium 40(2):155-161.
113897  Papaconstantinou, C.,2014 Fauna Graeciae. An updated checklist of the fishes in the Hellenic seas. Monagraphs on Marine Sciences 7 73-74
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
118235  Morais, R.A. and D.R. Bellwood,2018 Global drivers of reef fish growth. Fish and Fisheries 2018:1-16.
118272  FAO-FIES,2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
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