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References Used for Fishes of Sternopygidae
( Glass knifefishes )
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[ n = 118 ] 
Albert, J.S., 2003 Sternopygidae (Glass knifefishes,Rattail knifefishes). p. 487-491. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.
Albert, J.S., 2001 Species diversity and phylogenetic systematics of American knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Teleostei). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. University of Michigan, 190:1-129.
Albert, J.S. and W.L. Fink, 1996 Sternopygus xingu, a new species of electric fish from Brazil (Teleostei: Gymnotoidei), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Sternopygus. Copeia 1996(1):85-102.
Allard, L., A. Toussaint, R. Vigoroux and S. Brosse, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 58 fish species in French Guiana streams. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:567-570.
Almeida-Toledo, L.F., F. Foresti, M.F. Zambelli Daniel and S.A. Toledo, 1993 Nucleolar chromosome variants in Sternopygus macrurus (Pisces, Sternopygidae) from three Brazilian river basins. Caryologia 46:53-61.
Anonymous, 1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.
Anonymous, 2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Anonymous, 1990 Report of the Division IIIa Demersal Stocks Working Group. ICES Doc. C.M. 1990/Assess:10.
Anonymous, 1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Anonymous, 2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
Anonymous, 1993 Computerized catalog of the fish collection. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California.
Arkhipchuk, V.V., 1999 Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.
ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1995 Aquarien Atlas. Band 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Germany. 864 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1997 Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 1148 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1991 Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 1104 p.
Barbosa, J.M. and E.C. Soares, 2009 Perfil da ictiofauna da Bacia do São Francisco: estudo preliminar. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Pesca 4(1): 155-172.
Barriga, R., 1991 Peces de agua dulce del Ecuador. Revista de Informacion tecnico-cientifica, Quito, Ecuador, Politecnica, XVI(3):7-88.
Batista-Silva, V.F., D. Bailly, E.A.L. Kashiwaqui, M.C.F. Abelha and W.J. Graça, 2015 Length-weight relationships for 55 freshwater fish species from the Iguatemi River, Upper Paraná basin, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:257-260.
Begossi, A. and J.C. Garavello, 1990 Notes on the ethnoichthyology of fishermen from the Tocantins River (Brazil). Acta Amazon. 20:341-351.
Begossi, A., R.A.M. Silvano, B.D. do Amaral and O.T. Oyakawa, 1999 Uses of fish and game by inhabitants of an extractive reserve (upper Juruá, Acre, Brazil). Environ. Dev. Sust. 1:73-93.
Benedito-Cecilio, E., A.A. Agostinho and R.C.C.-M. Velho, 1997 Length-weight relationship of fishes caught in the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Naga ICLARM Q. 20(3/4):57-61.
Blake, R.W., 1983 Swimming in the electric eels and knifefishes. Can. J. Zool. 61(6):1432-1442.
Boujard, T., M. Pascal, F.J. Meunier and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1997 Poissons de Guyane. Guide écologique de l'Approuague et de la réserve des Nouragues. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, 219 p.
Britski, H.A. and J.C. Garavello, 2003 Hisonotus insperatus: new species, from the upper Rio Paraná basin (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Loricariidae). Copeia 2003(3):588-593.
Britski, H.A., K.Z. de S> de Silimon and B.S. Lopes, 2007 Peixes do Pantanal: manual de identificaçäo, 2 ed. re. ampl. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Informaçäo Tecnológica, 227 p.
Carl, H., 2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
Casatti, L., M.A. Pérez-Mayorga, F.R. Carvalho, G.L. Brejão and I.D. da Costa, 2013 The stream fish fauna from the rio Machado basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Check List 9(6):1496-1504.
Castro, R.M.C. and L. Casatti, 1997 The fish fauna from a small forest stream of the Upper Parana River Basin, southern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3-4):337-352.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
Claro-García, A., L.J. Soares Vieira, L.R. Jarduli, V.P. Abrahão and O.A. Shibatta, 2013 Fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii) from igarapés of the rio Acre basin, Brazilian Amazon. Check List 9(6):1410-1438.
Cordiviola de Yuan, E. and C. Pignalberi de Hassan, 1985 Fish population in the Paraná River: lentic environments of Diamante and San Pedro areas (Argentine Republic). Hydrobiologia 127:213-218.
Correa, S.B., W.G.R. Crampton and J.S. Albert, 2006 Three new species of the neotropical electric fish Rhabdolichops (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the central Amazon, with a new diagnosis of the genus. Copeia 2006(1):27-42.
Crampton, W.G., K.C. Hulen and J.S. Albert, 2004 Sternopygus branco: a new species of neotropical electric fish (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the lowland Amazon basin, with descriptions of osteology, ecology, and electric organ discharges. Copeia 2004(2):245-259.
Crampton, W.G.R., K.G. Hulen and J.S. Albert, 2004 Redescription of Sternopygus obtusirostris (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the Amazon basin, with description of osteology, ecology and electric organ discharges. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 15(2):121-134.
da Costa, M.R., T. Moreti and F.G. Araújo, 2014 Length-weight relationships of 20 fish species in the Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30(1):200-201.
Denton, T.E., 1973 Fish chromosome methodology. Illinois, Springfield. 166p.
Dutra, G.M., C.D. De Santana and W.B. Wosiacki, 2017 A new species of the glass electric knifefish genus Eigenmannia Jordan and Evermann (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from R´ıo Tu´ıra Basin, Panama. Copeia 105(1):85-91.
Dutra, G.M., C.D. de Santana, R.P. Vari and W.B. Wosiacki, 2014 The south American electric glass knifefish genus Distocyclus (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae): redefinition and revision. Copeia 2014(2):345-354.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2004 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of January 2004. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in January 2004.
FAO-FIES, 2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
FAO-FIES, 2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
FAO-FIES, 2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
FAO-FIES, 2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
FAO-FIES, 2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
FAO-FIES, 2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
Foresti, F., 1987 Estudos cromossômicos em Gymnotiformes (Pisces, Ostariophysi). "Livre Docência" Thesis, Inst. Basico de Biol. Médica e Agricola, Uni. Estad. Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu.
Foresti, F., L.F. Almeida Toledo and S.A. Toledo F, 1981 Polymorphic nature of nucleolus organizer regions in fishes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 31(3):137-144.
Galvis, G., J.I. Mojica and M. Camargo, 1997 Peces del Catatumbo. Asociación Cravo Norte, Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., 188 p.
Giarrizzo, T., R.R. de Sena Oliveira, M.C. Andrade, A.P. Gonçalves, T.A.P. Barbosa, A.R. Martins, D.K. Marques, J.L.B. dos Santos, R. de P., da S. Frois, T.P.O. de Albuquerque, A. Montag, M. Camargo and L.M. de Sousa, 2015 Length-weight and length-length relationships for 135 fish species from the Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:514-424.
Gilbert, R.J. and T.R. Roberts, 1972 A preliminary survey of the freshwater food fishes of Ecuador. International Center for Aquaculture Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Project A.I.D./csd-2780. 49 p.
Godinho, H.P. and A.L. Godinho, 2003 Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. PUC Minas., Belo Horizonte. 468 p.
Hagedorn, M. and W. Heiligenberg, 1985 Court and spark: electric signals in the courtship and mating of of gymnotoid fish. Anim. Behav. 33:254-265.
Hernández-Serna, A., V. Márquez-Velásquez, J.D. Carvajal-Quintero, A. Gulfo, C. Granado-Lorencio and L.F. Jiménez-Segura, 2014 Length-weight relationships of 38 fish species of the Magdalena River floodplain lakes. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30(3):549-551.
Hinegardner, R. and D.E. Rosen, 1972 Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Am. Nat. 106(951):621-644.
Hopkins, C.D., 1974 Electric communication: functions in social behavior of Eigenmannia virescens. Behaviour 50:270-305.
Hopkins, C.D., 1972 Sex differences in electric signaling in an electric fish. Science 176:1035-1037.
Hopkins, C.D., 1974 Electric communication in the reproductive behavior of Sternopygus macrurus (Gymnotoidei). Z. Tierpsychol. 35:518-535.
Hureau, J.-C., 1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
IBAMA, 2004 Instrução normativa no. 5 de 21 de maio de 2004. Anexo 1. Accessed in August 9th, 2010.
Iguchi, K., N. Matsubara, T. Yodo and K. Maekawa, 2004 Individual food niche specialization in stream-dwelling charr. Ichthyol. Res. 51:321-326.
Keith, P. and F.J. Meunier, 2000 Rhabdolichops jegui, une nouvelle espèce de Sternopygidae (Gymnotiformes) de Guyane française. Cybium 24(4):401-410.
Keith, P., P.-Y. Le Bail and P. Planquette, 2000 Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 2, Fascicule I: Batrachoidiformes, Mugiliformes, Beloniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Synbranchiformes, Perciformes, Pleuronectiformes, Tetraodontiformes. Collection Patrimoines Naturels 43(I): 286p. Paris: Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
Kirschbaum, F., 1995 Reproduction and development in mormyriform and gymnotiform fishes. p.267-301. In P. Moller (ed.) Electric fishes:history and behavior. Fish and Fisheries Series 117. Chapman & Hall, London.
Kirschbaum, F., 1995 Vergleichende Daten zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie von drei Messerfisch-Arten (Gymnotiformes). p. 91-114. In H. Greven and R. Riehl (eds.) Fortpflanzungsbiologie der Aquarienfische. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.
Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven, 1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.
Landsman, R.E., 1995 Sources of plasticity in behavior and its physiology: sex, hormones, environment and the captivity model. p.303-343. In P. Moller (ed.) Electric Fishes:history and behavior. Fish and Fisheries series 117. Chapman & Hall, London.
Lindsey, C.C., 1978 Form, function and locomotory habits in fish. p. 1-100. In W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall (eds.) Fish Physiology VII. Academic Press, New York.
López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena and J. Ponte Gómez, 2005 Biodiversidad y distribución de la ictiofauna Mesopotámica. Miscelánea 14:311-354.
Lopez, H.L., R.C. Menni and A.M. Miguelarena, 1987 Lista de los peces de agua dulce de la Argentina. Biologia Acuatica No. 12, 50 p. (Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet").
Loureiro, M. and A. Silva, 2006 A new species of Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from Northeast Uruguay. Copeia 2006(4):665-673.
Lundberg, J.G. and F. Mago-Leccia, 1986 A review of Rhabdolichops (Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae), a genus of South American freshwater fishes, with description of four new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138(1):53-85.
Mago-Leccia, F., 1994 Electric fishes of the continental waters of America. Fundacion para el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales (FUDECI), Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas. Matematicas y Naturales, Caracas, Venezuela. vol. 29 . 206 p.
Mendes dos Santos, G.M.C., M. Jégu and B. de Merona, 1984 Catálogo de peixes comerciais do baixo rio Tocantins. Projecto Tucurí. Manaus, ELETRONORTE/CNPQ/INPA 83p.
Mendonça, H.S., D.S. Silva-Camacho, S.M. Pinto and F.G. Araújo, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 14 fish species from a lowland tropical reservoir in southeastern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:970-972.
Mérigoux, S. and D. Ponton, 1998 Body shape, diet and ontogenetic diet shifts in young fish of the Sinnamary River, French Guiana, South America. J. Fish Biol. 52(3):556-569.
Mérona, B. de and J. Rankin-de-Mérona, 2004 Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 2(2):75-84.
Meunier, F.J., C. Jégu and P. Keith, 2011 A new genus and species of neotropical electric fish, Japigny kirschbaum (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae), from French Guiana. Cybium 35(1):47-53.
Meunier, F.J., M. Jégu and P. Keith, 2014 Distocyclus guchereauae a new species of Neotropical electric fish, (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae), from French Guiana. Cybium 38(3):223-230.
Moravec, F., 1998 Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the neotropical region. 464 p. Praha, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
Møller, P.R., 1995 Electric fishes: history and behavior. Chapman & Hall, London. 584 p.
Nión, H., C. Ríos and P. Meneses, 2002 Peces del Uruguay: Lista sistemática y nombres comunes. Montevideo, DINARA, Infopesca.
Nomura, H., 1984 Nomes científicos dos peixes e seus correspondentes nomes vulgares. In H. Nomura (ed.). Dicionário dos peixes do Brasil. Editerra, Brasília, Brasil: 27-63.
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986 Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25.
Peixoto, L.A.W. and W.B. Wosiacki, 2016 Eigenmannia besouro, a new species of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 4126(2):262-270.
Peixoto, L.A.W., G.M. Dutra and W.B. Wosiacki, 2015 The electric glass knifefishes of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae): monophyly and description of seven new species. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 175:384-414.
Pelicice, F.M. and A.A. Agostinho, 2006 Feeding ecology of fishes associated with Egeria spp. Patches in a ttropical reservoir, Brazil. Ecol. Freshwat. Fish 15:10-19.
Petrovicky, I., 1988 Aquarium fish of the world. Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., London. 499 p.
Pihu, E., 1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad. Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996 Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.
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Porto, J.I.R., E. Feldberg, C.M. Nakayama and J.N. Falcao, 1992 A checklist of chromosome numbers and karyotypes of Amazonian freshwater fishes. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 25(4):287-299.
Proudlove, G.S., 1998 Checklist of cave-dwelling fishes of the world, to 1998. Unpublished.
Provenzano, R.F., 1984 Aspectos de la reproduccion en peces Gymnotiformes del Bajo Llano de Venezuela. Thesis, Univ. Central de Venezuela, Caracas. 68 p.
Rass, T.S., 1983 Fish. Vol. 4, Life of animals. V.E. Sokolov (ed.), Moscow: Prosveschenie. 575p.
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1991 Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 992 p.
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1996 Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle, Germany. 992 p.
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
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Schliewen, U.K., 1992 Aquarium fish. Barron's Education Series, Incorporated. 159 p.
Skelton, P.H., 2001 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Cape Town (South Africa): Struik Publishers, 395 p.
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Tejerina-Garro, F.L., R. Fortin and M.A. Rodriguez, 1998 Fish community structure in relation to environmental variation in floodplain lakes of the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin. Environ. Biol. Fishes 51(4):399-410.
Toledo-Piza, M., 2002 Peixes do Rio Negro (Fishes of the Rio Negro: Alfred Russel Wallace (1980-1952)). To be filled.
Vari, R.P., C.D. de Santana and W.B. Wosiacki, 2012 South American electric knifefishes of the genus Archolaemus (Ostariophysi, Gymnotiformes): undetected diversity in a clade of rheophiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 165:670-699.
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Wheeler, A., 1977 Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. Stuttgart. 356 p.
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Zakon, H.H., P. Thomas and H.Y. Yan, 1991 Electric organ discharge frequency and plasma sex steroid levels during gonadal recrudescence in a natural population of Sternopygus macrurus. J. Comp. Physiol. 169A:493-499.
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