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References Used for Fishes of Ammodytidae
( Sand lances )
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[ n = 369 ] 
Abelló, C., 2019 Contribution to the study of species caught by trawling in Catalonia with the aim to improve fisheries management. CSIC - Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (ICM).
Aboussouan, A., 1964 Contribution à l'étude des oeufs et larves pélagiques des poissons téléostéens dans le golfe de Marseille. Rec. Trav. St. Mar. End. 32(48):87-171.
Acosta, J.J., I. Muñoz and A. Juárez, 2008 First record of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Osteichthyes, Carangidae) in the Spanish waters of the Gulf of Cadiz, (ICES Division Ixa South). JMBA2-Biodiversity Records, pp.1-3. Published on line.
Alegre, M., J. Lleonart and J. Veny, 1992 Espècies pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Departament de Cultura, Generalitat Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994 Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p.
Allen, M.J. and G.B. Smith, 1988 Atlas and zoogeography of common fishes in the Bering Sea and northeastern Pacific. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 66, 151 p.
Amores, A., G. Thode, G. Martinez and V. Giles, 1993 Chromosome complement, C-banding and Ag-NOR in Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Ammodytidae, Perciformes). J. Fish Biol. 43(4):649-651.
Amori, G., F.M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini and G. Vicini, 1993 Vertebrata. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo and S. La Posta (eds.) Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 110. Calderini, Bologna, 83 p.
Andriyashev, A.P. and N.V. Chernova, 1995 Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the Arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123.
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Anonymous, 2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
Anonymous, 1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
Anonymous, 2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the Intitut fur Seefischerei (ISH). BIOLAB Forschungsinstitut, Hohenwestedt, Germany.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
Anonymous, 1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria BC, Canada V8V 1X4.
Anonymous, 1990 Report of Industrial Fisheries Working Group. ICES Doc. C.M. /Assess:13.
Anonymous, 1991 Report of Industrial Fisheries Working Group. ICES Doc. C.M. 1991/Assess:14.
Anonymous, 2000 Systematisk liste over norske fisk registert pr. 1997.
Anonymous, 1997 Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.
Anonymous, 1999 Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000.
Anonymous, 1986 Report of the Industrial Fisheries Working Group. Copenhagen, 7-13 March 1986. ICES C.M./Assess:15.
Anonymous, 1977 Report of the working group on Norway pout and sandeels in the North Sea. ICES C.M./F:7, 47 p.
Anonymous, 1994 Welsh names of animals and plants: I Vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. p.17-26. In W.B.L. Evans (ed.) Cyfres enwan (creaduriaid a phlauhigion: I creaduriaid asgwrn-cefn pysgod, amffibiaid, ymlusgiaid, adar a mamaliaid. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd.
Anonymous, 1998 Fish collection database of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum (BPBM). Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai`I, 96817-0916 USA.
Appleby, C., 1999 List of Norwegian common names of fishes. Unpublished.
Arias, A. and P. Drake, 1990 Estados juveniles de la ictiofauna en las caños de las salinas de la bahia de Cadiz. Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia. CSIC.
Armstrong, R.H., 1996 Alaska's fish. A guide to selected species. Alaska Northwest Books. 94 p.
ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.
Ayupov, I.R., L.A. Balkonskaya, I.A. Biryukov, A.V. Volodin, N.V. Golodnikova, N.K. Galimzianov, S.V. Dubrovsky, L.M. Zverkova, V.F. Ivanov, E.R. Ivshina, K.S., Yu, R. Kochnev, I.M. Mamulo, E.R. Perveeva, G.M. Pushnikova and …, 1993 Commercial fishes, invertebrates and algae of marine waters off Sakhalin and Kuril Islands. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Dal'nevostochnoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo, 192 p.
Bañon, R., D. Villegas-Ríos, A. Serrano, G. Mucientes and J.C. Arronte, 2010 Marine fishes from Galicia (NW Spain): an updated checklist. Zootaxa 2667:1-27.
Bat, L., Y. Erdem, S. Ustaoğlu, Ö Yardım and H. Hüseyin Satılmış, 2005 A study on the fishes of the Central Black Sea coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 11:291-296.
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
Beamish, R.J., K.D. Leask, O.A. Ivanov, A.A. Balanov, A.M. Orlov and B. Sinclair, 1999 The ecology, distribution, and abundance of midwater fishes of the Subarctic Pacific gyres. Prog. Oceanog. 43:399-442.
Bergstad, O.A., A.S. Høines and E.M. Krüger-Johnsen, 2001 Spawning time, age and size at maturity, and fecundity of sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, in the northeastern North Sea and in unfished coastal waters off Norway. Aquat. Living Resour. 14:293-301.
Bertolini, F., U. D'Ancona, E. Padoa Montalenti, S. Ranzi, L. Sanzo, A. Sparta, E. Tortonese and M. Vialli, 1956 Uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo Napoli Monogr. 38:1-1064.
Bertram, D.F. and G.W. Kaiser, 1993 Rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) nestling diet may gauge Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) recruitment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50 :1908-1915.
Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer, 1999 FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 265p.
Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer, 1999 FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 265 p.
Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953 Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull. 53:1-577.
Bilecenoglu, M., Taskavak E., S. Mater and M. Kaya, 2002 Checklist of the marine fishes of Turkey. Zootaxa (113):1-194.
Bizzarro, J.J., A.N. Peterson, J.M. Blaine, J.P. Balaban, H.G. Greene and A.P. Summers, 2016 Burrowing behavior, habitat, and functional morphology of the Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes personatus). Fishery Bulletin 114(4):445-460.
Bogorov, V.G., B.P. Manteifel and A.E. Pavlova, 1939 Nutrition of the small sand-eel (Ammodytes tobianus) in Murman waters. Trans. Inst. Mar. Fish. Oceanogr. USSR 4:355-365.
Bogutskaya, N.G., 2007 Preliminary assignment of coordinates to type localities in the Catalog of Fishes. Unpublished dbf file.
Bolshakova, Y.Y. and D.V. Bolshakov, 2018 Ichthyofauna of the eastern coast bays of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. Oceanology 58(2):228-232.
Bowman, R.E., 1984 Food of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis. Fish. Bull. 82(1):21-35.
Bowman, R.E., C.E. Stillwell, W.L. Michaels and M.D. Grosslein, 2000 Food of northwest Atlantic fishes and two common species of squid. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE 155, 138 p.
Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen, 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p.
Brodeur, R.D. and W.G. Pearcy, 1990 Trophic relations of juvenile pacific salmon off the Oregon and Washington coast. Fish. Bull. 88(4):617-636.
Browne, P., J.L. Laake and R.L. DeLong, 2002 Improving pinniped diet analyses through identification of multiple skeletal structures in fecal samples. Fish. Bull. 100:423-433.
Bruce, J.R., J.S. Colman and N.S. Jones, 1963 Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Memoir No. 36. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.
Buckley, L.J., S.I. Turner, T.A. Halavik, A.S. Smigielski, S.M. Drew and G.C. Laurence, 1984 Effects of temperature and food availability on growth, survival, and RNA-DNA ratio of larval sand lance (Ammodytes americanus). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15:91-97.
Buckley, L.J., T.A. Halavik, A.S. Smigielski and G.C. Laurence, 1987 Growth and survival of the larvae of three species of temperate marine fishes reared at discrete prey densities. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 2:82-92.
Byrkjedal, I. and Å. Høines, 2007 Distribution of demersal fish in the south-western Barents Sea. Polar Research 26:2007 135-151.
Cameron, J., 1958 Studies on the Ammodytidae of Isle of Man waters. University of Liverpool, Liverpool. Ph.D. dissertation.
Carl, H., 2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
Cattrijsse, A. and H. Hampel, 2000 Life history and habitat use tables. Final Report. Subproject 1 - "Nursery Function Westerschelde". University of Gent, Dept. of Biology, Marine Biology Section. 30 p.
Chen, C.-H., 2004 Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. FRI Special Publication No. 4. 175 p.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Chikilev, V.G. and A.V. Datsky, 2000 Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus (Ammodytidae) in the Bay of Anadyr and adjacent waters. Vopr. Ikhtiol. 40(6):772-779.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
Clemens, W.A. and G.V. Wilby, 1961 Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. 2nd ed. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull. (68):443 p.
Clemens, W.A. and G.V. Wilby, 1946 Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 68: 368 p.
Coad, B.W., 1995 Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore.
Coad, B.W. and J.D. Reist, 2004 Annotated list of the arctic marine fishes of Canada. Can. MS Rep. Fish Aquat. Sci. 2674:iv:+112 p.
Coad, B.W. and J.D. Reist, 2018 Marine fishes of Arctic Canada. Toronto (ON, Canada): University of Toronto Press. xiii+618 p.
Collette, B.B., 2001 Ammodytidae. Sandlances. p. 3518. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome.
Collette, B.B. and G. Klein-MacPhee (eds.), 2002 Bigelow and Schroeder’s fishes of the Gulf of Maine, third ed. Caldwell, N.J. : Blackburn Press, 577 p.: ill.; 27 cm.
Collette, B.B. and J.E. Randall, 2000 Ammodytoides leptus, a new species of sand lance (Teleostei: Ammodytidae) from Pitcairn Island. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 113(2):397-400.
Cook, R.M., 2004 Estimation of the age-specific rate of natural mortality for Shetland eels. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61:159-169.
Costa, F., 1991 Atlante dei pesci dei mari italiani. Gruppo Ugo Mursia Editore S.p.A. Milano, Italy. 438 p.
Coull, K.A., A.S. Jermyn, A.W. Newton, G.I. Henderson and W.B. Hall, 1989 Length/weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North Atlantic. Scottish Fish. Res. Rep. (43):80 p.
Craig, P.C., 1984 Fish use of coastal waters of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: a review. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 113(3):265-282.
Crespo, J., J. Gajate and R. Ponce, 2001 Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain. 414 p.
Crozier, W.W., 1985 Observations on the food and feeding of the angler-fish, Lophius piscatorius L., in the northern Irish Sea. J. Fish Biol. 27(5):655-665.
Dardenne, P.J., 1975 Beiträge zur biologie der Ammodyten, insbesondere untersuchungen zur fruchtbarkeit von Ammodytes tobianus. University of Kiel, Germany. 54 p. Thesis.
David, J.H.M., 1987 Diet of the South African fur seal (1974-1985) and an assessment of competition with fisheries in Southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 5:693-713.
Davis, N.D., K.W. Myers and W.J. Fournier, 2009 Winter food habits of Chinook salmon in the eastern Bering Sea. N. Pac. Anadr. Fish Comm. Bull 5:243-253.
De Gee, A. and A.H. Kikkert, 1993 Analysis of the grey gurnard (Eutrigla gurnardus) samples collected during the 1991 International Stomach Sampling Project. ICES C.M. 1993/G:14. 25 p.
Deng, J., T.. Meng and S. Ren, 1988 Food web of fishes in the Bohai Sea. Marine Fisheries Research 9:151-171.
Deval, M.C., 2002 Common names of marine fishes of Turkey. Unpublished report.
Dolgov, A.V., 2000 New data on composition and distribution of the Barents Sea ichthyofauna. ICES CM2000/Mini:12, 12p.
Dolgov, A.V., 2007 Trophic structure of the Barents Sea fish community with the special reference to the cod stock recovery ability. ICES CM2007/D:08.
Ecomarg Project, 2006 Biodiversity: Cantabrian Sea, Galician Shelf and Le Danois Bank. Ecomarg Project (
Economidis, P.S., 1973 Catalogue of the fishes of Greece. Reprinted from Hellenic Oceanology and Limnology, Praktika of the Inst. of Ocean. and Fishing Research, vol. 11 (1972).
Economidis, P.S., 2001 Common names of Hellenic marine fishes. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
Economidis, P.S. and E. Koutrakis, 2001 Common names of comercially important Hellenic marine organisms. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
Economou, A.N., 1991 Food and feeding ecology of five gadoid larvae in the northern North Sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 47:339-351.
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Ehrenbaum, E., 1905 Eier und Larven von Fischen. p. 1-414. In Nordisches Plankton 1. Lipsius & Tischer, Kiel-Leipzig.
Ehrenbaum, E., 1904 Eier und Larven von Fischen der deutschen Bucht. III. Fische mit festsitzenden Eiern. Wiss. Meeresunters. Abt. Kiel und Abt. Helgol. (n.s.) 6(2):127-200.
Eigaard, O.R., M. van Deurs, J.W. Behrens, D. Bekkevold, K. Brander, M. Plambech, K.S. Plet-Hansen and H. Mosegaard, 2014 Prey or predator---expanding the food web role of sandeel Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 516:267-273.
Erzini, K., 1991 A compilation of data on variability in length-age in marine fishes. Fisheries Stock Assessment, Title XII, Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Rhode Island. Working paper 77, 36p.
Erzini, K., 1994 An empirical study of variability in length-at-age in marine fishes. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 10(1):17-41.
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2000 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 2000. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 2000.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2001 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of December 2001. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in December 2001.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2004 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of January 2004. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in January 2004.
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p.
Evermann, B.W. and E.L. Goldsborough, 1907 The fishes of Alaska. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 26: 219-360.
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Fadeev, N.S., 2005 Guide to biology and fisheries of fishes of the North Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok, TINRO-Center. 366 p.
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Falardeau, M., D. Robert and L. Fortier, 2014 Could the planktonic stages of polar cod and Pacific sand lance compete for food in the warming Beaufort Sea? ICES Journal of Marine Science 71(7):1956-1965.
FAO, 1992 FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 70: 1990. FAO Fish. Ser. 38:647 p.
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FAO-FIES, 2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
FAO-FIES, 2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
FAO-FIES, 2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
FAO-FIES, 2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
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FAO-FIGIS, 2005 A world overview of species of interest to fisheries. Chapter: Ammodytes personatus. Retrieved on 16 May 2005, from 2p. FIGIS Species Fact Sheets. Species Identification and Data Programme-SIDP, FAO-FIGIS
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