||Cichlidae (Cichlids), subfamily: Pseudocrenilabrinae
||22.6 cm SL (male/unsexed)
||Africa: throughout the Congo River basin from the lower Congo River to just above Stanley Falls, including Pool Malebo (=Stanley Pool), middle Congo River and the rivers Kwilu, Itimbiri and Lomami (Ref. 52346).
Dorsal spines (total): 14-16; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7-7; Vertebrae: 28-28. Diagnosis: lateral line with 34 or fewer scales; 17-18 gill-rakers along lower limb of first arch; inferior vertebral apophysis with characteristic spade-like outline; extremely robust lower pharyngeal jaw with flattened mill-like molariform teeth covering 2/3 of the dentigerous surface; fully ossified posttemporal latero-sensory canal; relatively short pectoral fins rarely reaching the level of the vent (Ref. 52346).
Description: both juveniles and adults deep-bodied (Ref. 52346, Ref. 52307). Dorsum strongly recurved from nape to caudal peduncle, but body more or less flattened along ventrum; predorsal profile straight and steep; deepest body depth along back reaches from behind origin of dorsal fin to about fifth or sixth spine; lower jaw more or less along horizontal when mouth is closed (Ref. 52346). 3 series of scales on cheek (Ref. 52971). Lips thickened and fleshy; 2-3 hypobranchial rakers often reduced and simple, as is the last ceratobranchial raker; intervening ceratobranchial rakers overlapping and crenate; 9-10 elongate epibranchial rakers with often small crenations on the first few; 32-34 lateral line scales (Ref. 52346). 6-7 scales between first dorsal spine and upper lateral line (Ref. 52971). Upper lateral line with 24-27 scales, lower lateral line with 26-28 scales (Ref. 52971, Ref. 46852). Upper branch of lateral line ends a little anterior to soft dorsal; terminal canal bearing scales usually descends a row; ventral and dorsal lateral line branches on caudal fin well-developed and almost passing fin periphery; median branch also well developed but only extending 1/2-2/3 of fin length; dorsal fin spines increase in length to 6th-7th and are then more or less equal in length; anal fin rounded; pectoral fins very short and rarely reaching vent; first branched pelvic ray often produced and filamentous but not reaching level of soft anal; caudal fin roundly emarginate and finely scaled, usually almost to fin periphery; caudal fin densely scaled in large individuals of both sexes (Ref. 52346).
Coloration: body pale gray-brown; some scales in the anterior parts of the body can have a slightly bluish-silvery flush; some dark dots present in dorsal fin; anal fin with short red-brown lines in anterior section; front of head darker than body with a dark stripe running through the eye (Ref. 52307). Well developed nape band and diffuse opercular blotch present; 7-8 vertical stripes usually present behind nape band, which tend to extend down to well below the midline; small specimens with pronounced stripes on caudal peduncle, which are faint or absent in larger fish; dorsal fin smokey grey and dotted with white maculae; anal fin with traces of white maculae on a smokey grey background (Ref. 52346). Caudal fin striped (Ref. 4910).
||Benthic macrophage (Ref. 52346). Feeds on insects and their larvae, as well as on molluscs, plants and detritus; maternal mouthbrooder that does not pair bond (Ref. 52307).
|IUCN Red List Status:
Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 16 February 2009 Ref. (123251)
|Threat to humans:
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