Ecology of Epinephelus multinotatus
 
Main Ref. Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Epinephelus multinotatus may be found.
Remarks Inhabit clear to turbid water in shallow as well as deep water (Ref. 4787). Juveniles are found in inshore coral reefs (Ref. 5222). They feed in water to more than 100 m depth (Ref. 27275). It has been suggested that juveniles mimic the herbivorous damselfish Neopomacentrus sindensis, presumably to get closer to their unsuspecting prey (Ref. 5222, 9710). Feed on small fishes and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Rankin's rock cod feed in water to more than 100 m depth (Ref. 27275). Probably make frequent use of shelters, suggesting an 'ambush' method of feeding (Ref. 6390).

Substrate

Substrate Benthic; Hard Bottom: rocky;
Substrate Ref. Letourneur, Y., P. Chabanet, P. Durville, M. Taquet, E. Teissier, M. Parmentier, J.-C. Quéro and K. Pothin, 2004
Special habitats Coral Reefs;
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Parrish, J.D., 1987
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Parrish, J.D., 1987
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 3.86 0.67 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Luna, Susan M. on 10.07.98
Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen on 11.19.08
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