Ecology of Lichia amia
Main Ref. Bennett, B.A., 1989
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Lichia amia may be found.
Remarks Occassionally entering lower reaches of Kunene and Orange Rivers (Ref. 52863). Found in coastal waters including estuaries. Feeds mainly on fish; juveniles prefer crustaceans (Ref. 4332).


Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Bennett, B.A., 1989
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Bennett, B.A., 1989
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 4.50 0.80 4.66 0.89 Troph of juv./adults from 1 study.
Ref. Bennett, B.A., 1989
From individual food items 4.32 0.77 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Sa-a, Pascualita on 09.28.97
Modified by Pablico, Grace Tolentino on 01.21.05
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