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Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Merlangius merlangus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)
Merlangius merlangus
Picture by Morris, P.

Portugal country information

Common names: Badeho, Badejo, Badejo-do-Mar-Negro
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
National Checklist: Portugal
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990
National Database: Portuguese Freshwater Fishes

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Merlangius: French, merlan = a fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 1371), usually 30 - 100 m (Ref. 1371).   Temperate; 72°N - 35°N, 27°W - 42°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southeastern Barents Sea and Iceland to Portugal, also in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and adjacent areas. Rare in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.8, range 28 - 30 cm
Max length : 91.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106276); common length : 23.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 30-40; Anal soft rays: 30 - 35. Body elongate; head small. Chin barbel small or absent. Lateral-line canals on head with pores. Color is variable; yellowish-brown, dark blue or green, sides yellowish grey, white and silvery on belly; often with a small dark blotch at the upper base of the pectoral fin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

More commonly found from 30 to 100 m, mainly on mud and gravel bottoms, but also on sand and rock. Feed on shrimps, crabs, mollusks, small fish, polychaetes and cephalopods. Migrate to the open sea only after the first year of life. Eggs are pelagic. Larvae and juveniles are associated with jellyfish. Upon maturity, small chin barbel characteristic of juveniles disappear (Ref. 53061). Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 October 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 11.9, mean 9.2 (based on 409 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00559 - 0.00712), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (rm=1.1-1.6(?); K=0.07-0.74; tm=1-4; tmax=20; Fec>100,000).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 17 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.