Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Parexocoetus: Greek, para in the side of + Greek, exos = outside + Greek, koite = hole (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m. Tropical; 30°N - 23°S, 20°E - 178°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 13 cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2797)
Indo-Pacific: widespread from East Africa, including the Red Sea and the Gulf, to southern Japan, Marshall Islands, Fiji, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Queensland, Australia. Migrated to eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal (Ref. 6523). Presence in Somalia to be confirmed (Ref. 30573). Records from the Atlantic (as Parexocoetus mento atlanticus) are in error.
Found in near-shore surface waters, never spread to open sea (Ref. 9839). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding above the surface (Ref. 30573).
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (-0.16711 - 0.17489), b=3.12 (3.03 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .