Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous? (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 5 m (Ref. 6733). Subtropical; 22°C - 24°C (Ref. 2059); 45°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6733)
Eastern Atlantic: southern Biscay to Gibraltar, and also the Mediterranean and Black seas. Introduced and became established in the former USSR. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Euryhaline, found among detritus or vegetation over sand or mud, within a temperature range of 8° to 24°C. Probably an amphidromous species (Ref. 51243) but migratory behavior needs verification. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Early free-living young measure 23 mm TL (Ref. 6733).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00039 (0.00023 - 0.00065), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .