Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Agonostomus: Greek, a = without + Greek, gonias= angle, corner + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 20°C - 31°C (Ref. 36880); 36°N - 1°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.6, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321)
North to South America: North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana and Texas in the USA to Colombia and Venezuela, including the West Indies.
Adults live in freshwater rivers and streams. Young are encountered occasionally in brackish waters. This is the only mullet that ascends far inland and spends all its adult life in freshwater (Ref. 11225). Tend to be few and solitary in upper streams, but form uneven schools in larger streams at lower elevations (Ref. 11225). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Usually spawn during the rainy season (Ref. 42119). Caught and consumed by local populations in some parts of central America.
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01114 (-0.15559 - 0.17786), b=2.98 (2.89 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 128,827).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .