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Zoarces viviparus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eelpout
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Zoarces viviparus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Zoarces viviparus (Eelpout)
Zoarces viviparus
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Zoarcidae (Eelpouts) > Zoarcinae
Etymology: Zoarces: Greek, zoarkes, -es = that gives life (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 31184), usually 2 - 20 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 72°N - 49°N, 11°W - 42°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - 18 cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4695); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4695); max. published weight: 510.00 g (Ref. 6397); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Bones are green due to harmless pigment. Skin slimy and variable color (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: White Sea, Cheshskaya Guba and Murmansk coast (Barents Sea) southward to English Channel (River Somme); eastern coasts of Scotland, England, also Irish Sea; the Orkneys, Shetlands and in shallow waters of North Sea and Baltic.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky shores under stones, among algae and in tide pools, between tide marks down to 40 m. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on gastropods, chironomids, crustaceans, eggs and fry of fishes. Gives birth to live young (Ref. 9900). Bones colored green by the harmless pigment Vivianit (Ref. 4645). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Mating takes place in August - September with internal fertilization of the eggs. Female give birth to 30-400 developed young (35-55mm) (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Fertilization occurs in August-September. Egg development lasts for one month. Total bearing time is five months (Ref. 6397).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Andriashev, A.P., 1986. Zoarcidae. p. 1130-1150. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4695)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00238 - 0.02312), b=3.03 (2.77 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.49 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=2; tmax=10; Fec=30; K=0.19-0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.