Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic. Tropical; 15°N - 8°S, 95°W - 78°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321)
Eastern Pacific: Recorded principally from the Galapagos Islands but records also exist from Guatemala to Panama, including Peru.
Occur in shallow waters, most commonly in areas of mangrove development and shallow embayments. Often seen scraping algae from lava rocks or browsing on filamentous algae (Ref. 28023). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). More data needed. Probably caught incidentally with other mullets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00538 - 0.02451), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .