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Xenentodon cancila  (Hamilton, 1822)

Freshwater garfish
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Xenentodon cancila
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Xenentodon: Greek, xenos = strange + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - ?; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2 m (Ref. 58302).   Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 38°N - 5°N

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-18; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 16 - 18. Body very elongate and slightly compressed. Dorsal fin inserted usually anterior to a vertical through the origin of the anal fin. Green-silvery dorsally, grading to whitish below. A silvery band with a dark margin run along the side; a series of four or five blotches (absent in young specimens) on sides between the pectoral and anal fins. Dorsal and anal fins with dark edges.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: Sri Lanka and India eastward to the Mekong.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Male pursues a slow-moving female and upon catching up with the female, will begin shuddering from side to side while the pair is oriented parallel to each other; the pair positions themselves close to submerged vegetation; male assumes a slight head-down position , with his anal fin curled under the female's vent; the pair begins trembling until a single large egg is released; each female produces about a dozen eggs per day; eggs hatch in about a week; no parental care (Ref. 44091).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. (Ref. 4833)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 6028)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: potential
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00132 (0.00072 - 0.00241), b=3.10 (2.93 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.